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科目  英语

年级  高二

文件 high2 unit15.doc

标题  A famous detective(著名侦探)

章节  第十五单元

关键词  高二英语第十五单元

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

单元双基学习目标

Ⅰ. 四会单词和词组:have a seat , quarrel , long before , dare , upon , fasten , gun , again and again , blow (n .) , hall

   三会单词和词组:personal , affair , relative , delay , pillow , nail , chest , pay … a visit , furniture , armchair , pet , doubt , silence , in silence , living room , strike , scream , snake , tiny , nephew , niece , connect to

Ⅱ. 交际英语:

1. I’m afraid I have to go now .

2. It is time sb + 动词的过去式

3. I hope you have a good journey back to …

4. It was nice to meet you .

5. Please remember me to sb请代我向……问好

6. I called to tell you that …

7. I’d like you to meet …

8. Thanks again for calling .

9. It is very kind of you to do …

10. I have to see to . 我必须处理 。

Ⅲ. 语法重点:

本单元复习过去分词作定语和状语的用法。过去分词可以作名词的前置定语,也可以作名词的后置定语。当过去分词作状语时,要注意其逻辑主语的问题。

另外要学习同源宾语的用法,如:( page 2 Unit 13 )

    Einstein ( lived ) the rest of his ( life ) quietly in the USA . ( 爱因斯坦在美国静静地度过了余生 ) 。其中宾语 life 与 live 是同源的名词,即同源宾语 ( cognate object ) 。这是中学英语课本中十分常见的语法现象,这种宾语用在某些不及物动词之后,并往往有定语修饰,现举例如下:

    1 . My grandmother lives a happy life in the countryside . 我的祖母在乡下过着幸福的生活。

    2 . Premier Zhou Enlai fought a hard fight against “Gang of Four” .     周恩来总理与“四人帮”进行了一场艰苦的斗争。

    3 . He breathed his last breath last night .  昨天夜里他咽了最后一口气。

    4 . He laughed a hearty laugh at the good news . 听到好消息后他开心地笑了。

    5 . Chris will sing us a pop song . 克莉斯将给我们唱首流行歌曲。

    6 . Her son died a hero's death in the war . 她儿子在战争中英勇牺牲了。

    7 . She sleeps a sweet sleep only on Sundays . 只有在周日她才能甜美地睡一觉。

    8 . I dreamed a pleasant dream last night . 昨天夜里我做了个愉快的梦。

    9 . My father signed a deep sign . 我父亲深深地叹了一口气。

    10 . My mother smiled a happy smile when I passed the entrance examination .当我通过了入学考试时,我妈妈幸福地笑了。

【指点迷津】

单元重点词汇点拨

1. delay推迟;耽搁

What delayed you so long yesterday ?

The train was delayed one hour by the accident .

〖点拨〗without delay毫无耽搁地,立即。after a delay of two hours延迟两个小时以后。

注意:delay + -ing推迟干……。如:I’ll delay answering his letter until I feel like writing .

另外,put off + ing推迟干……。如:They put off holding the sports meet .

2. quarrel争吵;吵架

He had a quarrel with his wife about  / over the housework .

〖点拨〗quarrel with sb about / over sth因为……向某人争吵

3. dare与need

dare 和 need 这两个词的用法有它们独特的地方。词性有两种而且不同的词性决定了它们不同的用法。对中学生来讲掌握它们的用法有一定的难度,无论教师从理论上如何解释,但同学们在具体运用中都会出现浮光掠影,若明若暗,零乱残缺,张冠李戴的现象。这两个词难就难在对词性的判断,它们可以作为情态动词用(其后不带 to),又可以作为行为动词用(后面要带 to)。为了便于区分其词性和掌握用法,同学们可以采用下面的口诀帮助记忆。

〖点拨〗口诀:“dare , need 真奇怪,既行为(指行为动词)又情态(指情态动词),是行为,把 to 带(指其后用不定式),是情态,把 to “卖”(指其后去掉 to,只用动词原形)。若 need (= want ,require) 的主语是某物,愿与 -ing (= to be done)结姻缘。”

请做以下练习:

1) Something is wrong with my watch . It needs ____ .

    A . to repair    B . repairing    C . repaired    D . being repaired

2) I ____ to ask the teachers for advice in the office .

    A . dare not    B . not dare    C . dare don't    D . don't dare

3) He ____ come to school to give us a lecture on how to learn English .

    A . need    B . need to    C . needs    D . to need

4) She ____ do so .

    A . won't dare    B . dare not    C . will dare to   D . not dare

5) We ____ to think it over before we take action  .

    A . needing    B . needs    C . need    D . needed

[答案与简析]1 ― 5 BDABC 。第一题选B;某物作 need 的主语,后面应用动名词的主动形式表被动含义。第二题选D;dare 用作行为动词,其否定形式应为“助动词+ not dare to do sth . ”第三题选A;need 用作情态动词,其后跟动词原形。第四题选B;dare 用作情态动词,直接加 not 表示否定。第五题选C;need 用作行为动词,主语是人称代词,其后应该是 need to do sth .

4. furniture (总称) 家具

A lot of furniture will be bought for you .

〖点拨〗furniture是不可数名词,表示件数要用量词piece / set 。如:three pieces of furniture三件家具。

5. doubt怀疑;疑虑

I have no doubt that he will pass this examination .

〖点拨〗beyond doubt = out of doubt毫无疑问。

用于肯定句时用doubt if / whether …。用于否定句时用doubt that 。

单元词组思维运用

1. have a seat = take a seat坐下

Entering the hall , he had a seat in the corner .

Have a seat and make yourself at home .

注意:have a seat用于直接引语。

2. long before = long time ago很久以前

She said that she had known your name long before .

注意:It wasn’t long before是一个常用句型,意为“不久”。before long不久以后

3. pay … a visit = pay a visit to对……进行参观;对……进行访问

That basketball team will pay Europe a visit before long .

注意:表示状态的“在……参观;在……访问”用on a visit to 。如:These singers have been on a visit to Africa for a month .

4. in silence静静地 = silently

She alone sat under the tree in silence , looking straight forward .

5. again and again = over and over反复地;再三地

The student made the spelling mistakes again and again .

6. connect to连接;相连

    Please connect the two speakers to the amplifier .

注意:connect with与……相连接;与……有联系。如:She is connected with the Smiths .

7. see to处理;负责

I have some personal affairs that I have to see to .

Will you see to turning off the lights ?

8. have a good / pleasant journey一路顺风;一路平安

I hope you have a good journey back to Guangzhou .

9. fasten … to… 把……栓在……;把……系在……

He fastened a rope to a post .

10. do repairs维修;修理

A few building repairs were done a week ago .

We must do a lot of repairs on the house before we move in .

11. no matter不要紧;没关系

It’s no matter whether he will come or not .

注意:在It doesn’t matter 中,matter是动词。

12. from that moment on从那一刻起

13. a long wait等很久

There will be a long wait before the next train comes .

Word came at last after a long wait .

14. in the dark在黑暗中

It was hard to find your pen in the dark .

15. be supposed to do应该干……

We are supposed to gather at the school gate at 7:30 .

16. a length of一段

She bought two lengths of silk .

What is the length of the report ?

17. send for派人去请;派人去取

I’ll send for the magazine tomorrow .

If bitten by a snake , you should send for help and don’t walk .

18. fire back开火还击

No one was allowed to fire back unless the order was given .

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

单元难点疑点思路明晰

1. I've got some personal affairs that I have to see to . 我有些私事非处理不可。

〖明晰〗1) affair, business 作“事物”讲时,这两个词的意义很相近,常可通用。

Mind your own affairs (business) . 少管闲事。

business不能用复数,而affair特别是指重大或头绪较多的事务时,常需要复数,在下面的句子里,这两个词不能通用。

Each Ministry of Foreign Affairs lodged a protest with the other .  双方外交部向对方外交部提出抗议。

Business before pleasure . 先办正事,再谈娱乐。

2)see to有“注意,照料,保证,修理,诊治”等意思。例如:

Your shoes need seeing to . 你的鞋得修补了。

You ought to have your eyes seen to by a doctor . 你应该请医生治眼睛。

2. I dare say my uncle will . I have no other relatives . 我认为我叔父会得到这笔钱,我没有其他的亲戚。

〖明晰〗1)I dare say 的意思并不是“I dare to say”,而是和“也许”几乎同义或者等于“我想”。

I dare say you're right . 我看大概是对的。

I dare say it will come later . 我想它以后会来的。

2)dare用作情态动词时,后接动词原形,主要用于疑问句和否定句或者表示不肯定意义的各种从句中。例如:

Dare you ask him ? 你敢问他吗?

I dare not go there . 我不敢去那儿。

That is as much as I dare spend . 我只敢花那么多的钱。

3)dare作主动词时是规则动词,用法如下:

a)表示“敢”,后接动词不定式,也可省去to。例如:

I don't know how he dares to appear in public .

I've never dared go back to look . 我从来不敢回去看一下。

3. I think it will be necessary for me to pay you a visit and  see  where you live . 我想有必要去拜访你,看看你住在什么地方。

〖明晰〗1)句中的it用作形式主语。例如:

Is it necessary for us to meet/necessary that we meet ?我们有见面吗?

2)pay a visit (to someone or something)/pay (someone or something) a visit表示“(短时间)访问(某人,某物)”;“参观(某物)”。例如:

Shall we pay your brother a visit this afternoon ?

4. Do you see that hole high up in the wall, about 18 cm by 9 ? 你看到墙壁上方那个大约18厘米宽,9厘米高的洞没有?

〖明晰〗1)句中的high用作副词,指的是高矮;而highly表示很高的程度(意思往往是 very much)。

The plane flew high above . 飞机高高地在上空飞。

An eagle circled high overhead . 一只鹰在头上高高盘旋。

The goods on display are all very highly priced . 这些展销货物标价都很高。

He speaks very highly of the boy's behaviour . 他十分赞赏孩子的行为。

2)about 18 cm by 9用作后置定语,修饰that hole,介词by表示面积、 体积的长、宽、高。例如:

The room measures fifteen feet by twenty feet . 房间宽十五英尺,长二十英尽。

5. Dr Watson and I will spend the night locked in your room . 我和华生就锁在你的房间里过夜。

〖明晰〗1)第一人称单数I与其他人连称用时,通常的词序是,第二、三人称代词在前, 第一人称代词在后。例如:

You and I can do it . 我和你都能做这件事。

You, Tom and I are to leave tonight . 我、你和汤姆今晚得离开。

2)句中的过去分词locked用作方式状语。例如:

Just then the old man entered (supported) by his son . 就在这时, 老人由儿子扶着走了进来。

He turned away (disappointed) . 他失望地走开了。

She went home (exhausted) . 她回到家时已精疲力尽了。

6. Immediately Holmes jumped up from the bed and struck a match . 福尔摩斯立即从床上跳起,划燃一根火柴。

〖明晰〗The young lady rushed into the room immediately she heard the noise . 那位年轻的女士一听到响声就冲入房间。

第一例句中的 immediately 用作副词, 表示“立刻, 立即”; 第二例句中的immediately用作副词,表示“一……就……”,类似的说法还有instantly, directly, the moment, the minute, the instant等。例如:

I'll go there directly (=as soon as) I have finished my breakfast .

The moment I saw you I knew you were angry with me .

【妙文赏析】

    A teacher asked his students some challenging ( 难以回答的,具挑战性的 ) questions to find the most intelligent ( 聪明的 ) students . His first question was:

     “ What can you get with one penny that can be used by the whole class for about an hour ?  ”

    After a while an answer came from a clever girl .

     “ I can get a candle . The whole class can be lit up ( 照亮 ) with its light .  ”

    The teacher praised the student for her smart answer before asking the second question .

     “ What can you get with one dollar which can be used by the whole class for a whole year ?  ”

    An answer came from monitor of the class .

     “ If we put a calendar ( 挂历 ) on the wall , we can use it for a whole year .  ”

    After warm applause of admiration ( 羡慕的掌声 )  , the teacher presented his third question:

     “ What can you get without paying anything that can be used for your whole life ?  ”

    This time there was no immediate response ( 答复 )  .

     “ You get your name free of charge and you use it all your life .  ” Again the clever girl won applause from the whole class .

    Now came the teacher's last question:

     “ What can you get which can be used after your death ?  ”

    Immediately he saw his favorite student open her mouth .

     “ A coffin ( 棺材 )  , Sir .  ”

【思维体操】

根据短文内容,在每个空白处填写一个适当的词(首字母已给出):

    It was a cold evening . Old Hill was in the ward(牢房)a____(1) .   He was put there for stealing some v____(2) jewellery in a shop .  He  knew  he would be in p____(3) for more than five years . C____(4) was coming and  the other prisoners(囚犯)were set free . He couldn't talk with n____(5) .  The policemen who guarded(看守)him were b____( 6)   buying  the  presents  for their families and friends . He lay down on bed,   and  he  could  not  fall a____(7) though he often felt t____(8) when he tried to earn some money  for his family .

    Suddenly the old man h____(9) some noise . He sat up at once.  The  door o____(10) and in came two policeman. They put a young man  into  the  ward, l____(11) the door and left. Old Hill looked at the young man up and  down, who w____(12) the nicest clothes. “He must be from a r____(13)   family, ”Old Hill said to himself. “But for what has he been b____(14) here too ?”

    “What happened to you, young man ?”he asked .

    “I was out of l____(15) this morning,”said the young man.“I had a  puncture(扎穿).”

    “It's an o____(16) accident, I think. Did you drive over a n____(17)?”

    “No, a wine bottle.”

    “You were too c____(18) ! But you haven't broken any l____(19) , in  my opinion.”

    “But the drunkard(醉汉)who was l____(20) in the street had it hidden  in his coat !”

答案与分析:

    Old Hill由于偷盗贵重的珠宝被关进了监狱。圣诞节快到了,牢房里只剩他一个人,他感到很寂寞。突然两个警察把一个年轻人关进了牢房。他打量那个衣着讲究的年轻人,可以判断他出身一个富有家庭。他问年轻人是为何被关进监狱。年轻人说他的汽车轮胎被酒瓶扎破了。Old Hill认为那也不犯法。最后年轻人拐弯抹角地说,那个酒瓶是在一个躺在街道上的醉汉的大衣里的(意思是他从醉汉身上碾了过去)。

    1. 从后面所讲的别的囚犯都释放来看,Old Hill一个人在牢房里,要填alone。2. 从上下文可以得知,Old Hill由于偷盗贵重的珠宝才被关进监狱的。因此,应填valuable。3. Old Hill偷盗了贵重的珠宝,就得在监狱里呆五年多。应当填prison。4. 从监狱的看守买礼物来看,是圣诞节到了。故应填Christmas。5. 另外几个囚犯被释放了,牢房里只剩Old Hill一个人,他也就无法和任何人说话了。应填nobody。6. 那些警察在圣诞节以前,忙于给亲友买礼物。应当填busy。7. Old Hill感到寂寞,躺在床上也睡不着,要填asleep。8. Old Hill在挣钱养家的时候,自然很劳累。所以,应当填tired。9. 牢房有别的人,因此只要有动静,Old Hill就会听到的。应填heard。10. 门开了人才会进来。故应填opened。11. 警察在关进囚犯之后,先锁了门才能离开。要填locked。12. 那个年轻人自然是穿着好衣服。应填wore。13. 年轻人穿着讲究,当然是出身有钱人家庭。要直rich。14. Old Hill不知道那个年轻人为何也被带到监狱来。故应填brought。15. 年轻人认为他不走运,才出了那件事。应当填luck。16. 汽车轮胎扎破并不是大事故,而是一件很普通的事情。因此,应当填写ordinary。 17. 一般情况下,汽车轮胎扎上钉子,才会被扎破的。要填nail。18. 年轻人说他从一个酒瓶上驶过去,才把轮胎扎破了。Old Hill 就说他太粗心了。要填careless。19. Old Hill认为,年轻人从洒瓶上驶过去也不犯法,故应填law。20. 从年轻人的回答可以看出,那个醉汉是躺在街道上的。实际上, 他的汽车从醉汉身上驶过去了。这也是他被带到牢房的原因。要填lying。

三、智能显示   

【心中有数】

单元语法发散思维

过去分词作定语、状语

〖思维〗一、过去分词作定语

1.过去分词作定语时,单个分词一般放在名词之前,分词短语必须放在名词之后,这种情况与现在分词作定语时相同。例如:

Her job was to take care of the (wounded) soldier .

We are doing our (written) exercises .

The machine (run by the old worker) is made in Shanghai .

2.过去分词作定语时,多表示已完成的动作,但有时其所表示的动作却尚未完成或有待于将来完成。例如:

The houses (built in the 19th century) has been on fire for half and hour. (动作完成)

the workers demand (increased) wage . (尚未完成)

3. 及物动词的过去分词还可用来表示被动, 但也有少数动词(如fall, escape, boil等)的过去分词作定语时,只表示完成。例如:

the man spoken to(别人与之讲话的那个人)

boiled water(开过的水,表完成)

〖思维〗二、过去分词作状语

1.过去分词可用来作时间、原因、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况的状语。

1)表时间。例如:

(Heated), the metal expands .这种金属加热后会膨胀。

(Asked) why he did it, he said it was his duty .

2)表原因。例如:

(Born in the village), he knows a lot of people there .

3)表条件。例如:

(United), we stand; (divided), we fail .团结则存,分裂则亡。

(Given more time), I can do it better .

4)表让步。

Although (exhausted) after a long journey, he continued to work .

5)表方式或伴随情况。例如:

The professor stood there (surrounded) by many students .

〖思维〗三、尤其需要注意的是:过去分词无论作什么状语,其逻辑主语应是主句的主语。

1.【误】Seen from the mountain, we found the building is very small .

【正】Seen from the mountain, the building is very small .

2.【误】Written carelessly, he made a serious mistake in the letter .

 【正】Written carelessly, the letter had a serious mistake .

【动脑动手】

单元能力立体检测

一、过去分词精练

1. The programs ____ (put) on yesterday evening were really wonderful.

2. ____ (send) to the hospital immediately, the wounded soldier was saved.

3. You'd better not get the plastic bags and boxes ____ (burn),  for  it  will give off some harmful gas and pollutants into the air.

4. The firefighters are trying their best to rescue all the people ____ (trap) in the fire.

5. ____ (encourage) by the teacher's words, the boy  was  determined  to  work harder and make greater progress.

6. The little girl was very ____ (frighten) at a frightening voice.

7. They found the house ____ (break) into and rang up the police at once.

8. The bridge that was ____ (build) twenty years ago needs repairing.

9. If ____ (give) more time, we could do it better.

10. ____ (excite) at the good news, he could not go to sleep.

11. The manager had every room ____ (examine) carefully.

12. Unless ____ (invite), I won't go to the ball tomorrow.

13. ____ (destroy) in the earthquake, the equipment doesn't work.

14. ____ (absorb) in the research work, he had no time to make any trip.

15. In the paper is a carefully ____ (decide) policy.

16. The first film ____ (direct) by her was very popular with the public.

17. The students have cleared away the ____ (fall) leaves.

18. I saw a lot of banners ____ (hang) from public buildings.

试题详情

科目  英语

年级  高三

文件 high3 unit10.doc

标题  The  Trick (计谋)

章节  第十单元

关键词  高三英语第十单元

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

大纲规定的单元日常核心交际用语指南

Prediction , Conjecture and Belief (预见、猜测和相信)

● Idiomatic Sentences 功能套语

1. I guess she's gone to visit some friends in another town . 我想她是去另一个城镇拜访朋友去了。

2. That's possible , but we can't be sure . 那有可能,但我们不能确定。

3. Something may have happened to her . 很可能他发生了啥事。

4. She might have + done … 她有可能已经……

She might have left for holiday . 她有可能去度假了。

5. She must have + done …

She must have gone to the public library . 她一定是去公共图书馆了。

6. It seems that … 好象……

It seems that she has known the examination marks . 好象她已经知道了考试的结果。

7. It looks as if … 好象……

It looks as if the boy is anxious about his sick father . 那个男孩好象很为有病的父亲担忧。

8. Obviously she's gone somewhere to stay . 很显然她去别的某个地放了。

9. I 'm sure … 我可以肯定地是……

I 'm  sure that you will be given a warm welcome . 你放心,你肯定能受到热烈的欢迎的。

10. In actual fact , I think you're right . 实际上, 我倒认为你是对的。

11. I can't guess how much it costs . 我猜不出要多少钱。

12. Can you guess his age ?

13. He must come from the northwest . 他一定是来自西北。

14. You must be joking ! 你一定是在开玩笑 !

15. They must have arrived by plane . 他们一定是乘飞机来的。

16. I seem to have caught a cold . 我似乎得了感冒。

17. It seems that he's not in at the moment . 他现在好象不在家里。

18. There seems no need to grow now . 现在似乎没有必要去了。

19. It appears to be endless . 似乎没有止境。

20. You appear to have travelled quite a lot . 你似乎去过了不少的地方。

21. It appeared that she had a taste for music . 她似乎很喜欢音乐。

22. I  believe it to be true . 我相信这是真的。

23. I  don't believe that it matters too much . 我认为这事关系不大。

24. There seems to be a good film tonight .

25. It seems that the petrol prices will increase this summer .

26. He can't have saved much money . 他不可能节约了很多的钱。

27. It's obvious that we are running out of our food . 很显然我们的食物快用完了。

● Model Dialogues 交际示范

A:Excuse me , Where are you from ?

B:Can you guess ?

A:You must come from Australia , don't you ?

B:Yes , I do . How did you guess ?

A:The way you speak ! Which part of Australia are you from ?

B:Plumtree . That's a small village near Sydney .

A:Hello . May I speak to Mr Wu ?

B:Sorry he has gone to Guangzhou .

A:I saw him this morning . When did he leave ?

B:Twelve o'clock . He must have arrived by now .

A:Oh , what a pity ! When will he be back ?

B:It seems that he won't be back until next Wednesday .

A:Ok , thanks . Bye !

B:Bye !

单元核心句型剖析

1. ( Lesson 37 ) It's not like her to have missed two days of classes .

     一两天不来上课,她不是这样的人。

〖剖析〗It's (just) like sb to do sth “某人(恰恰)就是这个样子”,表示表扬或者不满,其否定式则表示怀疑。如:

It's like him to leave the work to others . 他就是把工作推给别人的人。

It was like him to fail us at the last minute . 他就是这样,在关键时刻让我们失望。

It's just like her to think of others before thinking of herself . 她恰恰就是先人后己的人。

It isn't like him to have said anything like that .他可不是说出那种话的人。

It isn't like her to have spent so much money  . 花掉这么多钱,我看这不像她做得出来的事。

◆ 下面两句不一样:It's not like her to have missed two days of classes .

               一两天不来上课,她不是这样的人。(不上课的事已经发生)

               It's not like her to miss two days of classes .

               她不是那种两天不来上课的人。(并未发生过不上课的事,只是泛泛而谈)

◆ to have missed 是非谓语动词的完成式,表示动作早已完成。是高考测试中的重要知识点。又如:

(1)It isn't like him to have told a lie  to the manager . 他不是给经理撒谎的那种人吧。

(2)I'm glad to have seen your headmaster yesterday .

(3)He is said to have written a novel about the Long March . 据说他写了一本关于长征的小说。

(4)They thought it a pity not to have invited them . 他们认为没有邀请他们是令人遗憾的。

(5)I regretted to have missed such good chances . 我遗憾的是错过了这些好机会。

2. (Lesson 39 )The moment he entered the room , Bill fixed the chain across the door . 比尔一进入房间,就用链条把卧室的门扣上。

〖剖析〗这是复合句,其句型为:the + 时间名词 + 时间从句 + 主句。the moment … 表示“一……就”,相当于 as soon as 。注意从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。如:

We started the moment we got your telegram .

The moment I heard your voice I knew that you were very angry with me .

The moment he comes , let me know .

The moment you set foot on Chinese soil you will see what great changes have taken place in the past 5o years .

◆ 在中学英语中,一些名词词组具有连词的作用,现归纳如下,供同学们学习参考。

◇ the + 瞬间名词 (instant , moment , minute , etc . ) ,意为“一……就……”。例如:

The instant the result came out she told us about it . 结果一出来,她就告诉了我们。

The machine starts the moment the button is pressed . 一按电钮,机器就开动了。

 ◇ the + 季节名词 (spring , summer , autumn , winter)。例如:

He came back the autumn his sister got married . 他妹妹结婚的那年秋天他回来了。

Jack went to Beijing the winter his mother was ill . 他妈妈有病的那年冬天杰克去了北京。

◇  the + 序数词 + time。例如:

The second time we met , he replied to a lot of questions . 我们第二次见面时,他回答了不少问题。

He came to see my mother the first time he came to London . 他第一次到伦敦就来看我母亲。

◇ 不定代词 each , every , any + time。例如:

Each time he came to Paris he would visit the museum . 他每次到巴黎都要去参观那个博物馆。

You're welcome to come back any time you want to . 你什么时候回来,我们都欢迎你。

◇ the + day , week , year……。例如:

He called on me the day he arrived . 他到的那天来看我了。

Tom didn't go to school the week the teacher was ill . 老师生病的那个星期,汤姆没去上学。

◇ 其它词组。例如:

I didn't see how he could act the way he did . 我不懂他怎么能那样做。

He doesn't study hard the way his elder brother does . 他不像他哥哥那样努力地学习。

单元语法难点排除

直接引语变间接引语的 10 个注意点

本单元的语法要求是复习间接引语(Indirect Speech)和直接引语( Direct Speech )。同学们要通过本单元系统掌握表示请求或者命令的直接引语(祈使句)变成间接引语的方法。掌握当直接引语是一个陈述句时,在变成间接引语时应把这个陈述句变成由连词 that 引导的宾语从句,并根据意思改变人称和时态以及时间或者地点状语。下面是必须灵活驾驭的知识要点:

〖注意点 1 直接引语到间接引语的时态有变化。如直接引语的现在完成时变成间接引语的过去完成时等。时态变化中应注意:

直接引语表述的是客观真理时,间接引语中的时态不变。

Our teacher said , “The earth moves around the sun . ” →

Our teacher said that the earth moves around the sun .

直接引语是过去完成时,变间接引语时时态不变。

The boy said to his parents , “I had finished my homework before supper .”→

The boy told his parents that he had finished his homework before supper .

直接引语变成间接引语时,虚拟语气不变。

“We wish we didn't have to take exams . ”said the children . →

The children said that they wished they didn't have to take exams .

〖注意点 2 指示代词、人称代词、时间状语、地点状语及方向性动词也有变化。如直接引语中的 now变为     间接引语的  then 等。

注意如果转述发生在当地、当天的事,直接引语中的  come , here , today , this morning , yesterday , tomorrow 等不必改变。

He said , “I  want this . ”→ He said that he wanted that .

He said , “I arrived yesterday morning .” → He said he had arrived the morning before .

He said , “I'll come here this evening .”→ He said he would come here this evening .

〖注意点 3 直接引语是陈述句,间接引语为 that 引导的宾语从句。

She said to me , “I'm studying Japanese these days .”→

She told me (that)she was studying Japanese those days .

〖注意点 4 直接引语是一般疑问句时,间接引语为whether / if 引导的宾语从句。

Mr Howe asked , “Are you preparing for it ?”→

Mr Howe asked whether we were preparing for it .

如果是表示建议时可用 suggest / advise 来完成。

“Shall we meet at the theatre ?”he said . → He suggested that we should meet at  the theatre . = He suggested meeting at the theatre .

〖注意点 5 直接引语是特殊疑问句时,间接引语为连接代词(副词)引导的宾语从句。

He asked , “Which one do you like best ?”→ He asked which one you liked best .

〖注意点 6 直接引语是反意疑问句时,间接引语为 whether / if 引导的宾语从句。

He asked , “You have succeeded , haven't you ?”→ He asked us if we had succeeded .

也可以将疑问部分的主语作间接引语中的宾语。

“Shut the door , will you ?”→ He told / asked me to shut the door .

〖注意点 7 直接引语是祈使句时应把间接引语的句式改为 ask , tell , order 等+ 宾语 + 不定式。间接引语有时可以用 that 引导的宾语从句。以 let 开头的祈使句变间接引语时要选用 suggest + ing , suggest + that 从句,ask sb to do , advise sb to 。

The Party secretary said , “Let's do our best to win still greater victory .”→ The Party secretary advised that we should do our best to win still greater victory .

〖注意点 8 直接引语是感叹句时可以用 what / how 引导。间接引语是祝愿时用  wish 。

“ How fast he runs ! ”he said . → He said how fast he ran . = He said that he ran very fast .

He said ,“Happy new year ! ”→ He wished me a happy new year .

〖注意点 9 直接引语中有多种句式时,间接引语按照各自的句式转换。

“I can hardly hear the radio .”he said .“Could you turn it up ?”→

He said he could hardly hear the radio and asked me to turn it up .

〖注意点 10 如果直接引语中后一句说明前一句的原因时,可以用 as 来替代第二句的引导词。

“You'd better wear a coat . It's very cold outside .”he said .→

He advised me to wear a coat as it was very cold outside .

【指点迷津】

单元重点新词透视

1. pause 作名词或者动词是“ 中止,暂停”

He often paused in his speech . 他讲演时常常停下来。

He made a short pause and then went on reading . 他停顿了一下,然后接着读下去。

〖测试要点〗

(1) 辨析 pause 和 stop

pause 是短暂的中断或停止。stop 是突然、断然的终止。

He stopped talking with his friends . 他停止与朋友交谈。(stop + ing 停止干)

He stopped to talk with his friends . 他停下来与朋友交谈。(stop + to do 停下来干)

The foreign guests paused to look round the park . 那些外宾在公园里停下来看看四周。

He began to speak but suddenly stopped .

The speaker paused for breath .

Jane paused to look into a shoe window . 简停下脚步,看一看橱窗。

(2)词组:at pause 中止,停顿。make a pause 停顿一下。without a pause 没有休息。pause on / upon 在……停顿一下。

2. aloud 大声地;出声地

She cried aloud for help . 她大声呼救。

Read the text aloud please . 请朗读课文。

〖测试要点〗辨析 aloud , loud , loudly

aloud 强调发出的声音虽然不一定很大,但能听得见,不是窃窃私语。aloud 没有比较级。

He read the letter aloud .

He reads the story aloud to his young son . 他朗读那篇故事给他小儿子听。

He laughed loudly . 他大笑起来。

think (out) aloud 自言自语

She has a good pronunciation when she reads aloud .

loud 作副词 = loudly ,“响亮地,大声地,高声地” 但强调发出的音量大,传得远的声音,一般多用于动词 speak , talk , laugh , read 等的后面。loud 还作形容词,有比较级和最高及。

In order to be heard , the teacher speaks loud and clear .

We shouted as loud / loudly as we could . = We shouted at the top of our voices / lungs .

Speak louder , please . I can't hear you .

You are talking too loud .

He told us that in a loud voice .

All of us dislike loud music .

Will you please speak a little louder ?

loudly 作副词是“响亮地”,强调“喧嚣”之意。

Suddenly , the bell on the wall rang loudly .

Someone knocked loudly at the door .

The bomb exploded loudly (= with a loud noise ) .

3. fear 作名词或者动词“害怕,恐惧,担忧”

She feared for the little boy's safety .

There is no fear of his losing his way . 他不会迷路的。

I fear that I am late . = I'm afraid that I am late .

I have a fear that we will be late . = I'm afraid we will be late .

〖测试要点〗

(1) 用于简略回答中。

―Is she going to die ?

― I fear so . 恐怕如此。

A: Will he get well ?

B: I fear not . 恐怕不会好了。

(2) for fear (that) 由于害怕,生怕,以免。后跟的从句中用情态动词 might , would , should 。

I took an umbrella with me for fear (that) it should rain . 我因为怕下雨而带雨伞去。

4. aircraft 飞机;航空器(包括飞机、直升机、滑翔机、飞艇、热气球等);飞艇

The airline has ordered 25 new aircraft . 这家航空公司定购了 25 架飞机。

〖测试要点〗

aircraft 是集合名词,单复数一样。在测试中必须注意不要在其后加 -s 。

by aircraft 用航空器(注意中间不要加 the ),相当于 by plane , by air , by airplane , by aeroplane 。

5. flight 楼梯的一段。

He lives two flights up . 他住的地方还要再上两段楼梯。

She fell down a flight of stairs . 她从一段楼梯上摔了下来。

〖测试要点〗辨析 flight 和 stair

flight 是“一段楼梯”。stair 是“一层后台阶”。可见 flight 范围大于 stair,也就是说,flight 是由一层一层的stair 组成。另外,flight 还作“飞行,飞翔,航班,射程”讲。

How long is the flight to New York ?

She took the two o'clock flight to Chicago . 她搭两点飞往芝加哥的航班。

Did you have a good flight ? 这躺飞机还好吧 ?

The flight of stairs wants repairing .

His room is three flights up . 他的房间在 3 段楼梯上面。

单元重点词组扫瞄

1. be worried about 为……发愁,焦急,担心

He was worried about / over her health .

2. turn up 出现;向上翻;扭亮灯,开大音量

He promised to come but hasn't turned up yet . 他答应来,但还没有露面。

She turned her nose up at the idea . 她对这个主意翘起了鼻子。(表示蔑视)

He turned up the ends of his trousers . 他卷起了裤腿。

Please turn up the radio a little . It's too low .

Something unexpected may have turned up .

〖测试要点〗会辨析使用由 turn 构成的词组:

turn against 背叛。turn away from 把脸从……转过来。turn back 折回,把……逐回。turn down翻下衣领,调小,关小。turn in 归还,递交。turn off 关掉。turn on 打开。turn over 翻倒,仔细考虑。turn to 转向,求助于。by turns = in turn(s) 轮流,依次。take turns at +doing 轮流干。

We take turns at cooking . = We cook by turns .

They sang on the stage in turn .

We drove the car by turns . = We took turns at driving the car .

The key you lost has turned up . 你遗失的钥匙已经找到。

I turned to him for advice .

A big wave turned over the fishing boat .

It turned out that two passengers had been killed .

Everything turned out well . 一切顺遂。

Don't turn on the TV now .

Turn off the lights before you go out .

Please turn down the television .

We had better turn back now , for it is getting  dark .

She turned away and cried .

Nothing can make me turn against my company .

3. at least = at the least 至少

The food wasn't good but at least it was cheap .

注意区别:not in the least 一点也不,丝毫不。

He is not in the least angry .

4. What / How + about … 干……怎么样?……好吗 ?

How / What about a cup of coffee ?

〖测试要点〗What / How about 后可接名词 (或者动名词、代词)

How / What about taking a walk ?

How about going to Qingdao for our holidays ?

Some of them have gone . How about the others ?

What about us having a break under the tree ?

5. in actual fact = in fact = in reality = as a matter of fact = actually 其实,事实上

I thought she was six , but in actual fact , she's only four .

1. pick up 得到,获得,收听到,拾起,中途让某人上车

This kind of radio can pick up the programmes broadcasting by BBC. 这种收音机接受 BBC电台的节目比较容易。

He had picked it up from a research station in the desert the day before . 这是他前一天从沙漠地区的研究所取来的。

2. glance over = glance ( one's eyes ) over 随便看一看,浏览 。

Oh , he didn't study it . He only glanced over it . 噢,他没有研究过它,只粗略地看了一看。

glance over 有时相当于 look over , glance through。在课文中的 … then glanced over his shoulder before continuing down the street . (然后他回头望了望,就又沿街走去。)

最好一段中的 glance at 为“对……瞥一眼”。He glanced at his watch once again .

3. have a sudden thought 突然想出一个主意

I still remember he had a sudden thought in time of danger . 我至今记得他当时在危险的紧急关头想出了办法。

have … thought of / about 有……的办法,有……想法,有……打算

I had no thought of hurting his feeling . 我无意伤害他的感情。

I had some thoughts of going to the  countryside . 我想到乡下去。

Have you got any thoughts about next weekend ? 你下周有啥打算 ?

4. in a flash 瞬息,刹那间

In a flash he remembered everything and a plan began to form in his mind .

An idea formed in my mind in a flash . 我脑子里闪出一个想法。

5. hold out 伸出,拿出

He held out his hand and stopped a taxi . 他伸手拦了一辆出租车。

6. on one's arrival ……一到达

On his arrival he went straight to the counter . 他一到达就径直向服务台走去。

7. in uniform 身着制服

Do you know the man in uniform over there ? 你认识那边身着制服的人吗 ?

8. appear calm 外表显得很镇静(注意这里 appear 是系动词,故后接形容词 calm ,不要用 calmly )

9. with fear 害怕地

10. have a look around = look around = look about = look round 环顾四周

11. follow sb upstairs 跟某人上楼 (注意upstairs 为副词,其前不要加 to )。又如:go upstairs / downstairs

12. break into 非法进入,破门而入;闯入

We had to break into the room as we had lost the key .

This box looks as if it's been broken into . 看来这箱子有人撬过。

13. walk over to 走到……处

14. by name 名叫;指名道性地

The assistant , Tom by name , is asking to see you . 一个名叫汤姆的售货员要求见你。

He call call all his students by name . 他能叫出所有学生的名字。

by the name of 名叫,以……身份

A friend of mine by the name of Mike will be your manager . 我的一个名叫迈克的朋友要成为你们的经理。

15. walk around 在……随便转转

16. with sunglasses = wear sunglasses 戴着墨镜

17. smile to oneself 暗自微笑

The man with the beard smiled to himself .

Bill smiled to himself and began to feel less anxious .

I saw Mary smile to herself as she read the funny article .

注意类似的表达还有: think to oneself 暗想,say to oneself 自言自语。

18. take the lift to the fourth floor 乘电梯到四楼

19. get in a taxi 上出租车。get out of a taxi 下出租车。

20. say one's name aloud 大声说出某人的名字

1. make a lot of money 赚一大笔钱

2. for a moment 一下子,片刻,一会儿

注意:for the moment 目前,暂时

3. get on the aircraft to 乘飞机去……

4. It is perfect for 对……妙极了

5. force sth open 强行打开

注意:open 作宾补。如:The boxes of  precious stones were forced open . 一箱箱宝石被强行打开。

6. break off 打断,折断,突然停止,休息,绝交

He broke off a branch and gave it to me .

Tom broke off telling the story to answer the telephone . 汤姆讲故事时突然停下来,去接电话。

She broke off with her best friend . 她与自己最好的朋友断绝了往来。

Let's break off for ten minutes . = Let's have a rest for ten minutes .

7. a flight of  twelve stairs 一节 12 级台阶

8. turn round / about 转身,转向

They turned round and stood in the middle of the room , completely astonished .

9. lead up to 向上通到……

10. be curious about 对……好奇

11. escape from 从……逃离

12. make a telephone call to 给……打电话

13. play a trick on 给……开玩笑

14. be ashamed of 对……感到惭愧

15. as busy as a bee 忙忙碌碌

16. a flash of lightning 一道闪电

17. be supposed to do 应该干 ……

1. not do any shopping 不买任何东西

2. send a telegram to sb 给某人发电报

3. shake with fear  吓得直哆嗦

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

●从单元中词汇中的“静”说起

第 28 课中出现了 calm (镇静的,沉着的),除calm 表达汉语“静”外还有:quiet , silent  , peaceful 和 still。现就其用法归纳如下:

1. 形容天气的“温和”、“平静”、“寂静”时,这四个词基本通用。如:

a calm day 平静的日子,a quiet night 寂静之夜,a silent , moonless night 一个寂静、没有月亮的夜晚

2. 形容湖、海、洋的“平静”用 calm , quiet 和 still。如:

The sea is very calm . 海面很平静。

The high wind passed and the sea was calm again . 大风过后,海又平静下来。

The waters of the lake were quiet yesterday . 昨天湖面平静。

Still waters run deep . 静水流深。

3. 形容人的“冷静”、“镇静”用calm。如:

Keep calm ! 冷静点!

He is always calm even in times of trouble .

He seemed to be calm , but that deceived nobody . 他看上去是一副镇静模样,但其实谁也骗不了。

4. 形容人的“静默”用 quiet , silent。如:

He remained quiet throughout the meeting . 整个会议期间他保持沉默。

5. 形容人的性情温和、文静用 quiet。含没有明显的运动和声音。如:

a quiet girl 文静的女孩

My parents are quiet people . They never go out in the evening . 父母爱静,晚上从不外出。

This hospital lies in a quiet street .

6. 形容人“静止”用 still。still 含寂然不动,鸦雀无声。如:

Please stand still while I take your picture . 我为你拍照时,请站好别动。

Right now you need to stay still . 现在你需要静静地呆着。

The boy couldn't keep still in the doctor's chair . 孩子在医生的椅子上一刻也坐不住。

7. 表达“安静”,quiet , silent , still 都能用。如:

Be quiet / silent . 请安静。

a quiet room 安静的房间

The audience was quite still . 全场听众几乎鸦雀无声。

The town was still in the early hours of the morning . 清晨时刻整个城镇静静的。

The building was usually very quiet . 那楼通常很安静。

体会下面表人时他们之间的区别:

They stood calm ( quiet , silent , still ). 他们镇静地(安静地、默不作声地、一动不动地)站着。

当心试题中的“分离现象”

解题时,经常会遇到这类题目,原句式结构或动词短语等被某些成份分离,或出于语法上的需要而使其从原结构中分离出来,从而增强了试题的干扰性,加大了试题的难度。碰到此题目时,不能被其表面现象所迷惑,必须从句子的整体结构去理解,看清试题的本来面目。

◇ 主谓被分隔造成谓语动词的误用。

在主谓之间加入一个介词短语或一个从句,往往会使考生误把介词宾语作为主语或把从句中谓语当成主句谓语,造成谓语动词的误用。如:

All but one ____ here just now .

    A . is    B . was    C . has been    D . were

该题答案为D,但考生往往把 one 看作主语,误选B。

The day we looked forward to ____ at last .

       A . come    B . came    C . coming    D . comes

由于把人句中 looked forward to 看作谓语,故错选了C。实际上本句是缺少谓语,应选B。

◇ 从句被状语分隔,造成关系词与连词的误用,或由于行文需被分隔造成错误。

在先行词与定语从句之间加入一个时间状语或地点状语,易使考生误把地点或时间当成先行词而误用关系词。同位语从句与其同位的名词被分隔,易造成连词的误用。如:

I met the teacher in the street yesterday ____ taught me English three years ago .

    A . which    B . when    C . where    D . who

若把 yesterday 误当作先行词,会导致错选B,而其实 teacher 是先行词,应选D。

The news has come from Beijing , ____ an important meeting is being held there .

    A . where    B . in that    C . that    D . which

若把 Beijing 看成先行词,则会导致其后面的从句误看作定语从句而错选A。实际上逗号后的句子是 news 的同位语从句,答案应为C。客中结构是为了保持句子的平衡。

◇ 习语中间插入其他词造成分隔,导致用词搭配错误如:

We waited ____ line for the bus .

          A . for    B . in    C . on    D . with

此句易受习语 wait for 的影响而误选A,其实句中 wait for 已被分隔,应选B。

◇ 因倒装而引起的分隔造成谓语动词的误用。

有些倒装句易使考生误判句子主语而错用了谓语动词。如:

At that time on it ____ 2200 people .

    A . was    B . is    C . are    D . were

若把 it 看成主语,则会误选A。其实主语为 people , 应选D。

◇ 其他分隔引起的错误。如:

We'll do all we can ____ them .

    A . help    B . to help    C . helped    D . have helped

由于定语从句用了省略形式,往往把 can 当成从句谓语的一部分,导致误选A。其实这是不定式用作目的状语,应选B。

◇ 定语从句中的分离现象

There are 800 students in the playground of our school , 55% ____ are girls .

            A . of them    B . in them    C . of which    D . of whom

此题考查的是非限制性定语从句,先行词和定语从句被地点状语分隔开来,故选D。若此题改逗号为分号,则应选A,因为分号表示前后两句意义上相互联系,结构上相对独立。

He is one of those students who , I am sure , always do ____ best .

        A . his    B . their    C . my    D . one's

从表面上看答案似乎是C,但如果注意到前面的 who , 答案就明确了。此题定语从句中的关系代词 who 和谓语动词 do 被 I am sure 分隔开来了。因此正确答案为B。

◇ 连锁疑问句中的分离现象

____ would you say ____ be done ?

        A . Why , it should     B . Why , should it

    C . What , should it    D . How , that it should

此题不少学生错选D。原因是不了解此结构是连锁疑问句。其结构为“疑问词+一般问句+特殊问句的其余部分”,往往用来征询对某一疑问点的判断、认识、看法、猜度等。在这种问句中一般问句部分常见的动词有 think , guess , say , suppose , hope , imagine , believe等。此题中疑问词被移至句首,故选A。

― I haven't heard from him for a long time .

― What do you suppose ____ to him ?

         A . was happening   B . to happen   C . has happened   D . had happened

粗心者十有八九会选B。实质上此题也是一种连锁疑问句,特殊问句中的 what 移至句首。该句强调的是过的动作对现在造成的影响,因此用现在完成时,故选C。

◇ 动词短语中的分离现象

If better use is ____ your space time , you'll make greater progress in that .

          A . spent    B . taken    C . made of    D . used for

 此题正确答案为C。乍一看,选C似乎不可思议,认为“be made of”应是“由……制成”之意。实质上此题考查的是短语“make use of”的用法,use 从原结构中分离出来充当条件句中的主语,因此谓语动词用被动式。

What idea can a man who is blind from birth have ____ colour ?

          A . of    B . in    C . for    D . with

不少学生误选B,认为“在颜色这方面”。其实此题考查的是“have (some , little , no…)idea of”结构。其中 who is blind from birth 是修饰 a man 的定语从句。该句中的“what idea”是疑问词被移至句首,故选A。

◇ 不定式复合结构中的分离现象

Who did the teacher have ____ an article for the wall newspaper just now ?

           A . written    B . writing    C . write    D . to writer

做此题时,首先要理清句子结构,理解 have 的确切含义, have 在此句中意为“请(让、叫)”。该句考查的是“have sb . do sth . ”结构,have 的受动宾语疑问词 who 被移至句首,故选C。

Whom had you better ____ it ?

         A . to let do    B . let to do    C . to let to do    D . let do

此题考查两种结构的用法:1 . had better do sth .  ; 2 . let sb . do sth . 。此题题意为“你最好让谁做这件事呢 ? ”let 的受动宾语 whom 移到了句首,故选D。

◇ 主谓一致中的分离现象

Everybody in our country , men and women , old and young , ____ sports and games .

    A . enjoy    B . were enjoying    C . enjoys    D . are enjoying

此题主语和谓语被同位语分隔了。同位语对主语只起修饰、解释、说明的作用,不影响 everybody 的单数性质,故此题选C。

Miss Green as well as Mr and Mrs Green ____ devoted ____ spare time to the research work .

           A . has ; her    B . have ; their    C . have ; her    D . has ; their

此题正确答案为A。当主语后面跟 as well as , with , together with , but , including , besides 等连接的名词或代词时,谓语动词和其前面的名词或代词在人称和数方面保持一致。

【妙文赏析】

科普系列阅读 (二)

Rockets  in  the  Sky

What is the sky ? Where is it ? How high is it ? What lies above the sky ? I am sure that you have asked   questions like these . They are very difficult to answer , aren't they ?

Perhaps we can answer some of these questions now . What is the sky ? It is vast space . Where is the sky ? It is all around the world . In  the sky there is the sun , the moon , and all the stars .

Scientists have always wanted to know more about space . They use telescopes to obtain information . But this is not enough . So they want to send men to some of the other worlds in space .

The moon is the nearest heavenly body to the earth . An airplane cannot fly to the moon , because the air only reaches a height of 240 kilometres . Then there is no air . But a rocket can fly even when there is on air .

A rocket is made of metal  there is a hot gas inside it . When it rushes out of the end of the rocket , the rocket is pushed up into the air .

Rockets can fly far out into space . Rockets have already taken men to the moon . One day they may be able to go anywhere in space.

NOTES : ⑴ vast  adj . 广阔  ⑵ obtain  v . 获得

EXERCISES:    请回答下列问题

⑴ What is the sky and where is it ?

⑵ In order to know more about space , what did scientists do ?

⑶ Why can't we fly to the moon in an airplane ?

⑷ what pushes a rocket up into the air ?

⑸ Can we be sure men will be able to go anywhere in space one day ?

〖译文与答案〗

空中火箭

天空是什么?它在哪儿?它有多高?天空的上方存在着什么?我确信你问过类似这样的问题。这些问题是很难回答的,不是吗?

或许现在我们能够回答这些问题中的一些。天空是什么?它是广阔的空间。天空在哪里?它遍及全球。天空中有太阳、月亮以及所有的星星。

科学家们总是想更多地了解太空。他们用望远镜来获取信息,但这是不够的。因此他们要把人送到太空中的其他星球上去。

月球是离地球最近的天体。飞机不能飞到月球上去,是因为飞机只能到达 24 万米的高度,再往上就没有空气了,但火箭即便在无空气时也能飞行。

火箭由金属制成,里成有一种热的气体,气体从火箭末端冲出来时,火箭被推向空中。

火箭能够飞出地球进入太空。火箭已经载人到了月球。会有那么一天,它们也许能够进入太空的任何地方。

答案:⑴ The sky is vast space and it is all around the world .  ⑵ They used telephones to obtain information and they wanted to send men to some of the other worlds in space .  ⑶ Because the air only reaches a height of 240 kilometres , then there's no air .  ⑷ A rocket is made of metal . There's a hot gas inside it . When it rushes out of the end of the rocket , the rocket is pushed up into the air .

Flying

Men have always wanted to fly like birds . Birds can fly easily because they are light , but men's bodies are heavier .

Men first went up into the air in balloons . These are big bags , and they are filled with gas . Hydrogen is a useful gas for balloons . It is lighter than air . Helium is also lighter than air , but it costs a lot of money . So balloons were (and are ) usually filled with hydrogen .

Balloons have to fly with the wind as they have no engines to drive them against it . Later , men made   airships . These were balloons with engines , but they were also filled with hydrogen and some of them caught fire because the hydrogen escaped and the engines heated it . Then the airship was completely burnt in a few seconds .

Aircraft with wings now take people across the world . Powerful engines drive these machines across the sky . Some of the engines are like the engines of cars , but they are more powerful .

There is another kind of engine which we call the jet engine . An English engineer invented the jet engine . In May 1942 his new engine was fixed in an aircraft , and the aircraft flew quite well . At the same time he Germans were also building a jet engine ; but neither country told the other , of course .

Jet engines are very powerful . Usually two , three or four are enough for an aeroplane ; but some big aircraft have six . Anyone in a moving jet plane can feel the power of the engines . Jet planes can travel faster than sound    (Sound travels at about 1100 feet a second . That is about 760 miles an hour .) As a flying jet plane leaves its noise behind it , we do not hear  it until it has gone .

Notes : ⑴ hydrogen n .氢气  ⑵ helium n . 氦气  ⑶ be filled with 充满

Exercises : 请回答下列问题

⑴ Which costs more money , balloons filled with hydrogen or those filled with helium ?

⑵ What were airships ?

⑶ Why did some of the airships catch fire ?

⑷ When was the first jet engine fixed in an aircraft ?

⑸ How many jet engines are usually enough for an aeroplane ?

〖译文与答案〗

飞  

人类总想像鸟一样地飞行。鸟儿能够轻易地飞行是因为它们身体轻,但是人类的躯体可就重多了。

人类最初是通过气球进入空中的,这些气球是充满气体的大袋子。氢气对于气球来说是一种有用的气体,它比空气轻多了。氦也是一种比空气轻的气体,但是它太昂贵了,因此气球通常都是装满氢气的。

由于气球没有发动机来作动力,所以气球不得不顺风飞行。后来,人类创造了飞艇,它们是具有发动机的气球,但不是圆的,而是长的,发动机在后面。它们也是被充满氢气;其中一些不幸失火,是由于氢气泄漏后发动机加热而引燃,几秒钟之后,飞艇就整个燃烧起来。

现在有翼的飞机可以带着人们穿越世界,强有力的发动机载着机器横过天空,一些发动机就像小汽车一样,但比它们的功率大得多。

还有一种我们称之为喷气式装置的发动机。一位英国工程师发明了这种喷气式发动机。1941 年5月,他发明的新发动机安装在一个飞机里,这个飞机飞行得很好。与此同时,德国人也建造了一个喷气式飞机发动机,当然两个国家都没告诉对方。

喷气式发动机马力很大。通常在一个飞机里装有两个、三个或四个已经足够了,但一些大的飞机要装六个。在一个正在运动着的喷气式飞机里,任何一个人都可以感觉到这些发动机的力量。喷气式飞机的速度要比声音的传播速度快(声音一 秒钟传播约1100英尺,也就是1 小时传播760 英里)。一个飞行着的喷气式飞机只有它飞过后我们才可听到噪声。

答案:⑴ Balloon filled with helium  .  ⑵ Airships were balloons with engines , but they were not round .They were long , and the engines were at the back .  ⑶ Because airships were also filled with hydrogen and some of them caught fire because hydrogen escaped and the engines heated it . Then the airship was completely burnt . ⑷ In May , 1941 .   ⑸ Usually two , three or four are enough for an aeroplane , but some big aircraft have six .

 

【思维体操】

It happened in a small village . The weather was bad and the farmers couldn't get good harvests . Most people were poor and few of them could send their children to school . Only Robert whose uncle was a policeman and worked in a town was in school for three years . So he thought himself the cleverest man in the world and always looked down upon others . One evening the young man went out for a walk and saw several farmers talking under a big tree . He joined them and soon he thought they were all foolish .

“Well , Mr Know-all , ”said an old farmer . “Are you good at guessing any riddles ?”

“Yes , I can guess all kinds of riddles !”the young man said without thinking .

“Please listen to me , then , ”said the old man . “Mr Smith has seven children . Autumn came and the apples were ripe . So he sent one to hold the ladder , two to pick apples and three to take the fruit home . And how many stayed at home ? ”

Mr Know-all thought for a long time and answered , “One ! ”

“You are wrong , ”a little boy returned . “Two persons stayed at home ! ”

All the farmers began to laugh at the young man . And do you know why ?

〖释疑〗There were eight people in the house (Mr Smith and his seven children ) . The farmer sent six to work in the garden . So there were two people left at home .

三、智能显示

【心中有数】

单元热点测试突破

易错常考的“情态动词+ have done”结构

在本单元出现了多处 “情态动词+ have done”表达推测。如:Something may have happened to her . 该结构经常用于 NMET 测试中,请同学们勿必引起高度的重视。下面是常见的形式:

◇ must + have done (have been doing) 表示对过去情况的推测,只用于肯定句,意思是“一定……”。对过去的否定推测用 couldn't have + done 。对现在的否定推测用 can't be 。

Her eyes were red , she must have been crying . 她两眼通红,一定一直在哭。

You must have left your handbag in the theatre last night , I think . 我想你一定把手提包丢在剧场了。

He can't be Li Ming . Li Ming is taller than him by a head .

She couldn't have gone to the cinema yesterday afternoon , because he was staying with us all the day long .

◇ should (ought to) + have done  表示“本来应该做而实际上没做”,其否定式则表示“本来不该做而实际上做了”,常含有责备的语气。

You should have been here five minutes ago . 五分钟之前你就应该到这里了。

How I regretted the days when I had played and should have studied . 我多么懊悔我本应该好好学习的日子都玩掉了!

◇ could + have done 表示“本来有能力做而实际上没有做”。

― We could have walked to the station , it was so near . 这么近,我们完全能走着来车站。

― Yes . A taxi was not at all necessary . 是呀,根本不必搭车的。

I could have won if I hadn't fallen over . 要不是摔倒,我准能赢。

◇ needn't + have done 表示“本来不必做的事,实际上做过了。”

I got up early , but needn't have done so , because I had nothing to do that morning . 那天早上我起得很早,可我根本不必起这么早,因为我无事可做。

You needn't have written such a long article . The teacher only asked for 300 words , and you have written 600 words . 你没有必要写这么长的文章,老师只要求写300字,你写了600字。

◇ would like to have done 表示“本来希望做而却未做的事”。

I'd like to have gone to college . 我要是上大学就好了。

I'd like to have seen his face when he opened the letter . 我真想看到他拆信时的脸色。

◇ can (could) + have done (have been doing) 表示对过去情况的推测,只用于否定和疑问句中,意为“一定没有……,一定不会……”。用 could 比用 can 语气更加委婉些。

He couldn't have gone to bed , you see , the light in his room is still on .

他一定还没有睡,瞧他房间的灯还亮着呢。

Where is Dick ? Where can he have gone ? Can he have been working ? 狄克在哪儿呢 ? 他会去哪儿呢 ? 他能一直干活吗 ?

◇ may (might) + have done (have been doing) 表示对过去的推测,多用于陈述句,意思是“可能……”。用 might 比用 may 语气更加委婉。

I may have misunderstood him . 我可能误解他了。

She might have taken the book with her , I suppose . 我想她可能把书带走了。

They might have been quarrelling about the problem the whole day . 对于那个问题他们可能一天都争论不休。

◇ would / should + have done 用于虚拟条件句中,表示与过去事实相反。should 只用于第一人称,would 用于各人称。

I should have called you if I had known your telephone number . 如果知道你的电话号码,我就给你打电话了。

There be 推测句型。其结构形式为:There + can / could / may / might / must + sth ./ sb . 。

该句型表达的是对“存在”的一种状态进行的猜测。

There must be many students in the classroom . 教室里一定有许多学生。

【动脑动手】

中视图文好题快递

NMET 语境选择 100 

1 . ― What are you doing ?

    ― I'm looking ____ the children . They should be back for lunch now .

           A . after          B . at        C . for       D . up

2 . The teacher told the class to ____ their books , for they would have a test .

     A . put away        B . put by        C . put on       D . put up

3 . I wonder what has brought ____ this remarkable change in their relationship ?

      A . along        B . away        C . about       D . around

4 . I can hardly hear th radio . Would you please ____ ?

      A . turn it on        B . turn it down      C . turn it up      D . turn it off

5 . He must ____ the south , for he likes to have rice for meal .

      A . come along      B . come over      C . come from       D . come to

6 . Still , he ____ his post , reporting the water level to the headquarters every fifteen minutes .

       A . came to        B . stuck to        C . devoted to       D . got to

7 . By reading quickly , I ____ the book before the library closed .

      A . could be finishing      B . could have finished

      C . could finish           D . can finish

8 . ― Must I get through the business in one evening ?

    ― No , you ____ .

       A . mustn't        B . haven't      C . needn't to      D . don't have to

9 . ― Where ____ my umbrella ?

    ― Somebody ____ it away by mistake .

         A . is , must have taken      B . is , must take

      C . was , must take           D . is , takes

10 . The teacher knows a lot about Shanghai . He ____ there before .

       A . must be      B . must go    C . must have been    D . must have gone

11 . ― Will your brother stay here tonight ?

      ― I'm not sure . He ____ shopping tonight .

         A . must go      B . can go      C . may go      D . will go

12 . ― Did Jim come ?

     ― I don't know . He ____ while I was out .

         A . might have come       B . has come

      C . must have come         D . should have come

13 . Why didn't you make me a telephone call yesterday ? I ____ about it .

        A . should be told     B . ought to have been told

       C . should have told    D . ought to be told

14 . ― Hurry , Mary ! You ____ on the phone .

     ― Oh , I'm coming . Thank you .

         A . want      B . are being wanted     C . are wanted    D . are wanting

15 . How long have you been in Beijing ? I ____ you ____ here .

        A . didn't know were     B . didn't know , had been

     C . don't know , are       D . haven't known , are

16 . ―Hasn't Professor Zhou arrived yet ?

      ― No , but I ____ he ____ here by this time .

        A . thought , would be      B . think , is

      C . thought , was          D . think , will be

17 . ―You've agreed to go , so why aren't you getting ready ?

     ― But I ____ that you ____ me to start at once .

         A . don't realize , want           B . don't realize , wanted

         C . haven't realized , wanted      D . didn't realize , wanted

18 . ― Look at this! I ____ some old pictures and ____ this baby picture .

      ― Is it a picture of you ? It's so lovely .

           A . was going through , found      B . am going through , find

           C . went through , had found       D . had gone through , find

19 . ― Where have you been all the time ?

      ― I came back at noon and I ____ in this room since .

          A . have been      B . was      C . had been      D . have gone

20 . She ____ for ten hours at least . It was at nine that she fell asleep last night .

        A . slept        B . had slept        C . has slept       D . was sleeping

21 . Don't get that ink on your shirt , for it ____ .

        A . won't wash out       B . won't be washing out

      C . isn't washing out      D . doesn't wash out

22 . ― We spent all our money because we stayed at ____ most expensive hotel in town .

      ― Why didn't you stay at ____ cheaper one ?

          A . the , a        B . a , a        C . the , the        D . a , the

23 . ― What would you like to eat ?

      ― I don't mind . ____ ―Whatever you've got .

         A . Something     B . Everything      C . Anything      D . Nothing

24 . My eyes are getting tired . I ____ for two hours . I think I'll take a break .

       A . have read      B . read      C . have been reading     D . am reading

25 . It's foolish to have a taxi ____ you can easily walk to the station .

         A . if          B . that          C . where          D . when

26 . Harvard , ____ in 1636 , is one of the most famous universities in the United States .

        A . set        B . formed        C . discovered        D . founded

27 . ____ you like to see the movie tonight ? I ____ meet you at the gate of  the Student Center .

        A . Would , will    B . Would , can    C . Do , must     D . Will , could

28 . There was a ____ change in the weather , and the rain came pouring down .

        A . quick          B . fast         C . slow        D . sudden

29 . ― Excuse me , can I use your ruler ?

      ― ____ .

          A . No , you can't      B . I'm sorry , but I'm using it    C . Yes , you could      D . I'm afraid you couldn't

30 . I ____ at the station half an hour ago , but the train ____ yet .

        A . arrived , didn't come       B . was arriving , hadn't come

       C . arrived , hasn't come       D . had arriving , didn't come

31 . ― Did you visit many places while you were in the States ?

      ― Yes , ____ .

          A . only a few     B . only few     C . quite a few     D . quite few

32 . ― The manager is away .

      ― Who is taking ______ of the company ?

          A . charge        B . place      C . part      D . position

33 . ― Can he lend me some money ?

      ― I regret to tell you he is ____ you .

         A . not rich as        B . no more rich than

      C . no richer than      D. not richer as

34 . ― My goodness! I just missed my flight .

      ― That's too bad , but I am sure you ____ it if you ____ .

           A . had caught , had hurried          B . could have caught , had hurried

           C . could catch , would hurry         D . could have caught , hurried

35 . The small company I had worked for was closed a few months ago , and I am now still ____ a job .

       A . looking at      B . looking for     C . looking up     D . looking  after

36 . Tom came back with a message ____ there would be a test soon .

        A . when          B . which          C . as         D . that

37 . Emily stopped her car ____ a black cat ____ across the street .

         A . to let , run    B . letting , run    C . to let , running   D . letting , running

38 . They tested the new medicine ____ doing experiments ____ rabbits .

         A . on , with        B . by , for        C . in , to       D . by , on

39 . Sheila , ____ we had been waiting , finally arrived .

         A . who        B . whom        C . for whom      D . for which

40 . He is getting better . ____ is no need to send for a doctor .

       A . came he        B . he came      C . did he come     D . he did come

42 . ____ many times , but he still couldn't understand it .

       A . Having told                  B . He had been told

     C . Though he had been told        D . Having been told

43 . If you drive from the airport , go on the motorway and follow the ____ to the city .

        A . points          B . signs        C . plans       D . ways

44 . I don't have any ____ but to do as you tell me .

        A . way          B . choice          C . chance        D . means

45 . Did you see that ____ involving two cars and a bicycle ?

        A . accident        B . incident        C . danger      D . happening

46 . The writer was always looking for suitable ____ to use in his next story .

        A . contents        B . articles        C . ideas       D . objects

47 . I'm sorry , David . It wasn't my ____ to cause a quarrel between you and Joanna .

        A . point          B . meaning          C . intention       D . view

48 . His wide ____ of the newspaper world enabled him to make a success of his job as an editor .

        A . career        B . experiment       C . experience       D . profession

49 . I am sorry you told him the secret . I wish you ____ him the secret .

        A . didn't tell      B . wouldn't tell &

试题详情

科目  英语

年级  高三

文件 high3 unit19.doc

标题  New Zealand (新西兰)

章节  第十九单元

关键词  高三英语第十九单元

试题详情

科目  英语

年级  高三

文件 high3 unit16.doc

标题  Social and personal(社会与个人)

章节  第十六单元

关键词  高三英语第十六单元

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

通过本单元的学习,同学们可以了解西方国家兼职工作的由来,了解处理人际关系的重要性和向他人寻求心理咨询的必要性。

单元双基学习目标

Ⅰ. 词汇学习

四会单词和词组:preparation , affect , show sb around , so long as ,

    三会单词和词组:have a gift for , easy-going , fun-loving , tourism , workmate

Ⅱ. 交际英语

Apologies , regrets and responses

1. I’m sorry …

2. I apologize …

3. Please excuse me …

4. I’m afraid …

5. I shouldn’t …

6. I ought to do …

7. What a shame !

8. That’s nothing . / Never mind . / It’s not important . / It doesn’t matter . / That’s all right . / That’s OK .

9. Don’t worry .

10. Forget it .

Ⅲ. 语法学习

复习被动语态的用法。注意现在完成时、现在进行时、一般过去时、一般将来时的被动语态。另外要特别留心情态动词的被动语态、系动词的被动语态、词组中介词与被动语态以及不用被动语态的词组,如:belong to , break out等。

【指点迷津】

单元重点词汇点拨

1. preparation准备,预备

I did little preparation for the examination .

〖点拨〗注意词组make preparations for(为……做好准备)中的preparation要用复数。

They are busy in making preparations for an international medical conference .

in preparation for作为……的准备

She bought a new coat in preparation for winter .

prepare for为……做准备

We must prepare for the party .

be prepared to do准备好地干……。乐意干…… 。prepare sb for = prepare sb to do让某人做好……准备。如:

I prepared him for the bad news .

We’ll prepare her to face the difficulty .

2. affect对……影响,发生作用

The noise from the street affected our work .

The disease is beginning to affect her eyesight .

Does the amount of rain affect the growth of crops ?

The story affected us deeply .

注意:effect结果,效果。have an effect on / upon对……有效。

3. easy-going随和的;轻松的

You’d better make yourself easy-going .

单元词组思维运用

1. take a part-time job干临时工

  take a fuu-time job全班工

2. be on one’s / the way to a lecture在去听报告的途中

注意:on one’s / the way to doing即将

He is on the way to becoming a doctor .

3. ask sb for directions = ask sb the way问路

4. go in the direction of朝……方向去

 I  saw her go in the direction of the bus stop .

5. have a gift for对……有天赋

As far as I know , she has a gift for music .

6. make … lively and interesting

You are supposed to make your speech lively and interesting , which is of great importance .

7. at lunchtime在中饭时

注意类似词组:at dawn在黎明时,at supper在吃晚饭时,at work在上班,等。

8. start one’s own business开始经营自己的行业

9. offer guide services to tourists向游客们提供导游服务

10. lead / live an active life生活活泼

To my great disappointment , he didn’t lead an active life .

11. in a difficult position = in trouble碰到麻烦

12. have nothing to lose不会有任何情况

13. catch sb stealing当场抓住某人偷东西

Later , the salesgirl was caught stealing the goods .

14. in my personal opinion在我个人看来

15. play a trick on作弄某人

It’s impolite for them to play tricks on the foreigners .

16. call in the police叫来警察

17. turn out better结果会更好些

18. set up a company建立一个公司

19. warn sb about / of sth提醒某人当心…… 。warn sb against sth = warn sb not to do sth 。

20. in the course of  在……期间

He fell sick in the course of the discussion .

21. write a reply to sb = write a letter of reply to sb给某人回信

22. have a great  / happy weekend=  have a good time at weekend过个非常愉快的周末

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

单元难点疑点思路明晰

1. He was on his way to a lecture, … 他正在去听讲座的路上。

〖明晰〗 on one’s/the way在路上,走向;在进行中。on one’s/the way home  ( there , abroad)在回家(去那儿,回国)的途中,on one’s/the way to one’s  home在回某人家的途中, on one’s/the way to do在去干…的途中,on  one’s/the  way  to doing即将实现……。如:

On the way home he thought over many things . 在回家途中他考虑了很多事情。

He is well on the way to becoming a fine engineer. 他快要成为一个优秀的工程师了。/ The patient is on his way to recovery . 病人在复元中。

2. … and  Fred  discovered  that  he  had  a  gift  for  making  a  visit  interesting and lively . 弗雷德发现自己具有一种使观光既有趣又生动的天赋。

〖明晰〗(1) have a gift for (= have a good head for)有……的才能,有鉴别力,有天才。 如:

He had no gift for making polite conversation at parties . 他生来不善于在集会上讲应酬话。

(2) 形容词interesting and lively作making的宾语补足语。以-ly结尾的单词有些是形容词,不是副词。如:lovely可爱的,friendly友好的,orderly  井井有条的, comradely  同志般的, lively  生动活泼的, motherly  母亲般的, monthly每月的,likely可能的,deadly致命的,lonely偏僻的,寂寞的,silly傻的,daily每月的。

3. In the evenings he studied hard for his exams, and most mornings he  took  tourists around Oxford . 晚上他努力学习为考试作准备,而大多数上午他带领游人参观牛津大学。

〖明晰〗(1) evening ,  morning , afternoon ,  Sunday等用复数形式可作副词,含有每逢这些时间之意。如:

He studied days and worked evenings .他白天学习,晚上工作。

I never get up early on Sundays . 每逢星期天我从不起早。

(SEFC B 3 L62) It’s a part-time job, so I only work evenings . 这是份计时工,所以我只是晚上干。

(2) take sb around= show sb around / over , round引导某人参观。

If you are free at two o’clock on Friday,  I  shall  be  delighted  to   take you around this ice-free port . 如果你星期五下午两点钟有空,我将乐意带你参观这个不冻港。

4.This is one example of a part-time job leading to greater things . 这个例子说明了计时工能导致更大的事业。

〖明晰〗lead to导致;通向。如:

His carelessness led to the accident . 他的粗枝大业导致了这次事故。

I suggest she take that path leading to the temple . 我建议她走通向寺院的那条路。

5. Generally you will have a greater chance of finding  a  suitable  job  if  you have done some part-time   jobs . 一般来说,如果你做过一些计时工, 那么你找到一份合适工作的机会就多。

〖明晰〗(1) generally =in general=generally speaking一般来讲。

(2) 已学过由chance构成的词组有:have a/no chance of doing有(无) 机会干, have a greater chance of doing有干……更大的机会,give a  chance  to do给某人一次机会,lose no chance for不放松,抓紧,by chance偶然,无意中,by any chance万一,碰巧。

(3) 由if引导的条件状语从句中用现在完成时表示,强调从句中的动作提前完成。如:

If you have learned English , you’ll  find  it  a  bridge  to  so  much knowledge . 当你学会了英语之后,你就会发现它是通向如此丰富知识的桥梁。

If he has taken two pills of medicine , he will feel much better soon . 假如他服了两片药丸后,很快就会感觉好些。

6. I’ve got a problem and as I don’t know what to do I thought I’d write  to you and ask for your advice . 我有一个问题,由于我不知道该怎么办,所以我想我还是给你写信,向你请教。

〖明晰〗(1) what to do为“疑问词+to do”可在句中作主语、宾语、表语。如:

(SEFC B 3 L22) How to get rid of waste is a great problem for the world  today . 如何去除废物是当今世界的一大问题。(作主语)

We wondered when to set sail . 我们不知道何时起航。(作宾语)

(2) I thought在句中作插入语。

(3) advice常用于如下搭配中:ask  for  one’s  advice征求某人的建议 / follow   (take) one’s advice采纳某人的建议 / refuse one’s advice on  拒绝某人在… 的建议 / act on / upon one’s advice听从某人的劝告/ act against one’s advice

不顾某人的建议/a useful piece(bit, word) of advice to sb对某人的一个有益的劝告/give sb some advice on……给某人在……一些建议。

7. I think I’m in a difficult position . 我觉得我的处境很麻烦。

〖明晰〗in a difficult position / situation = in trouble.处于不幸(苦恼、困境)中。如:

He is always ready to help anyone who is in a difficult position . 他总是乐于帮助有困难的人。

8. show sb around (round , over) , take sb around , visit,  pay a visit  to , be on a visit to , make visits to , look around , go sight-seeing

〖明晰〗(1) show sb around (round, over)=take sb around(round, over)领着某人参观。       如:

we’ll be shown around the supermarket in a minute . 马上就领我们去参观一下那个超级市场。

(2)  visit , pay a visit to , be on a visit to的后面可跟人,也可跟某地。 单独使用visit还可作“视察、巡视”之意。

She will pay a visit to Europe . 将对欧洲进行访问。

Restaurant and hotel kitchens are visited regularly by public  health inspectors . 餐馆及旅馆的厨房定期由公共卫生官员检察。

on a visit to参观,拜访(表达状态或作定语),make visits to经常拜访。如:

She has been on a visit to our province for a week . 她已对我省进行了五天的访问。

(3) look around/round观光,游览;  掉头环顾。如:

Do we have time to look around the town before lunch ? 我们中饭前有时间在城里游览一下吗 ?

(4) sight-seeing n. adj. 观光游览的。如:a sight seeing  bus  旅游车。

9. lively , lovely , living , live , life , alive

〖明晰〗 (1) lively   adj.“活泼的,生动的,栩栩如生的”,可作表语定语和宾补,既可指人,也可指物。如:

I feel that everything here is lively . 我觉得这儿的一切都富有生气。

(2) lovely adj.可爱的;秀美动人的。如:

It was lovely to hear from you again . 收到你的来信真让人高兴!

(3) live  v.生活, adj.  活的, 实况转播的(常作某物的定语),life是live的名词形式。

We’re living a happy life . 我们过着幸福的生活。

He bought scores of live fish last week . 上周他买了不少的活鱼。

We watched the football match on live television . 我们看了电视实况转播的足球赛。

(4) alive  “活着的,存在的”,常作表语或补语。既可用于人,也可用于物,作定语时常后置。如:

If she is alive, she is the happiest woman alive . 她若活着,她是世界上最幸福的人。

(5) living  “活着的,有生命的”。常作前置定语。如:

the greatest  living  painter  还活在人间的最伟大的画家 / There’re  no  living things on the moon . 月球上没有生物。

另外,living除作现在分词、形容词外,还可作名词“生活、生涯、生计”等,  多用于句型:make / earn a / one’s living by + ing以干……谋生。

10. affect , effect ,  result

〖明晰〗(1)affect v. 影响,作用(指经常暗示某种变化, 对象是人时可指思想上感情上的变       化)。如:

The economic crisis has seriously affected the country’s exports . 经济危机严重地影响了该国的出口。

The sight affected her to tears . 此情景使她感动得流泪。

(2) effect  n. 影响,效果。如:

It had an almost immediate effect on his thinking . 那件事对他的思维有近乎直接的影响。

This medicine has no effect upon her disease . 这种药对他的病没有作用。

(3) result结果;效果;成果。如:

In my  judgment  certain  factors  affecting  the  result  have  been  overlooked . 照我看来,某些影响效果的因素被忽略了。

11. link , connect , join , combine , unite

〖明晰〗(1) link联接;联系(指不同事物间的联系)。常用be linked with与……有联系

The interest of his is linked with that of the country . 他的利益同国家的利益联系在一起。

(2) connect的语气没有combine强,表一种事物与其他事物的关系。常用  be  connected with与……相联接。如:

They are connected with Chen’s family by their niece’s marriage . 他们和陈家只不过因侄女的婚姻有亲戚关系。

Some films combine education with recreation . 有些电影能容教育于娱乐之中。

(3) join连接(是指把分离的两者连接在一起)。常用join up接好,join…to  把……与……相联接。如:Please join the wires up . 请把电线接好。

(4) unite联合(强调二者组成一个整体以及把分散的部分统一起来)。如:

Let’s unite against the common enemy . 让我们团结起来反对共同的敌人。

【妙文赏析】

不要小看英语中的逗号

    按照结构,英语句子可以分为三大类,即简单句、并列句和复合句。在简单句和并列句

中,逗号对句子结构没有影响。例如:

    1 . However , he wants to be an engineer .

    2 . Hearing the news , he looked very happy .

    3 . He works in the company , too .

    4 . He , together with his classmates , will see the film .

    5 . The man , teaching us English , is from the U . S . A .

    6 . Stop here , or you will be fined .

    上述六个句子中的逗号只起停顿作用。不管有没有逗号,句1 ― 句5都是简单句, 去逗号也是简单句。句6有逗号是并列句,没有逗号也是并列句。但是在含有非限制性定语从句或状语从句的复合句中,逗号的作用就至关重要了。请看下面的例题:

    1 . The weather turned out to be very good , _____ was more than we could expect .

    A . what        B . that        C . it        D . which

    此题是考查非限制性定语从句的用法。因为有逗号的存在,我们可以判定逗号前面的部分为主句,后面的部分为从句,故答案为D . which 。假如把逗号改为句号,则原题空白处应填It 。

    2 . He has two sons , both of ____ are studying in Australia .

    A . them        B . who        C . whom        D . they

    此题和例题1一样,因有逗号的存在,故答案为C . whom , 这样才能使逗号后面的部分能充当非限制性定语从句。假如把逗号改成句号,上句便成为:He has two sons . Both of them are studying in Australia .

    3 . _____ is known to all , the compass was first made in China .

    A . What        B . It        C . As        D . That

    其实此题也是要考查非限制性定语从句的用法,只不过是把从句放到了主句前面。由于从句中缺少主语,那么能充当主语的就只能是关系代词As ( 即选项C ) 。假如去掉逗号,则应将句子改为:It is known to all that the compass was first made in China . 这时that引导主语从句,It为形式主语。

    4 . _____ having lessons , you shouldn’t make noises here .

    A . The students are            B . As the students are

    C . As the students             D . Because the students

    此题中,逗号后面的部分为主句,逗号前面的部分应为状语。因此,答案应选用B,以使逗号前面的部分成为状语从句。

    5 . _____  , so you should go to help him .

    A . As he is in trouble            B . He is in trouble

    C . Being in trouble               D . He being in trouble

    此题中,逗号后面的so为并列连词,逗号前后两个分句应该对等。C,D两个选项不是分句,可排除;A项是as引导的原因状语从句,不能与so连用。因此,答案为B 。

    6 . ____ , they have to have lessons outdoors .

    A . The classroom is begin painted        B . Being painted

    C . Having painted                        D . The classroom being painted

    此题中,逗号后面的部分为主句,逗号前面的部分应为状语 ( 从句或短语 ) 。由于A项不能作状语从句,可以先排除;而B,C两项的逻辑主语与后面句子的主语不一致,因此也应该将它们排除。D项虽然不是状语从句,但是它是由状语从句简化而来的独立主格结构,同样能作状语,故答案为D 。

【思维体操】

是 A 还是 B ?

    1 . I gave her some money on the understanding that she should spend it on books .

    A . 以……为条件                B . 我想 ( 我觉得 )

    2 . Father has made a bed for me .

    A . 铺好床                        B . 做了一张床

    3 . I won't make the last train .

    A . 造最后以节车厢                B . 赶最后一班车

    4 . Mimi is the black sheep of his family .

    A . 黑羊                        B . 败家子

    5 . Xiao Li is really the salt of the earth .

    A . 好心人                    B . 地球之盐

    6 . You leave me in the cold , friend .

    A . 让我受冻                B . 令我扫兴

    7 . The child is in hot water .

    A . 惹麻烦                B . 掉进热水

    8 . I answer complaints on the phone .

    A . 埋怨对方                B . 解答对方所抱怨的问题

    9 . The Indians declared that this  “ Pass Law ” was unfair .

    A . 通行证法            B . 被通过的法律

    10 . With the help of green houses , the villagers can provide cities and towns with all the vegetables in cold weather .

    A . 绿色房子                B . 温室

    11 . He had a gift for thinking up ways of making political points .

    A . 形成自己的政治观点            B . 阐述自己的政治观点

    12 . There is nothing worse than breaking the suitcase for the trip .

    A . 弄坏箱子            B . 箱子太小

    13 . We are none too early for the train .

    A . 我们刚好赶上火车。            B . 我们一个都没赶上火车。

试题详情

 

科目  英语

年级  高三

章节  第十三单元

关键词  高三英语第十三单元

文件  high3 unit13.doc

标题  高三英语第十三单元

内容

(三)语言训练课

Ⅰ教具  投影仪

Ⅱ课堂教学设计

1.     教师检查课文复述。

2.     教师从本单元词语中选择部分常用词语,配以例句介绍给学

生。要求学生反复练习这些例句,并请同学造句,教师予以讲评、订正。

1)          be content with

You should be content with what you have.

Farmers are very content with their life at present .

He was very content to have this second-hand car.

2)lead to

Too much work and too little rest often leads to illness.

The test is bad because it leads to incorrect learning.

This idea in teaching might lead to a new method.

3)prove

In order to prove the servant’s honesty she left a bag containing some money on the table.

On the long journey he proved himself to be an amusing company.

Perhaps this book will prove of some use to you in your studies.

4)work out

We must work out a better method of saving paper.

Mary worked out a beautiful design for a sweater.

He settled down at the desk to work out the difficult maths problem.

5)stick to

If you stick to the truth, you have nothing to fear.

I stick to what I said yesterday.

He never sticks to anything for very long.

6)respect n./v

Children are taught to respect their parents and teachers .

You should always show respect to old age .

If you don’t respect yourself ,how can you expect others to respect you?

7)take sides(in/with)

Switzerland refused to take sides in the two World Wars.

Everybody in the office takes sides in the argument.

Despite my friendship with Frank,I tried not to take sides with him in his brother.

8)advance v./advanced adj.

I signed him to keep away,but he continued to advance.

He was considered as an advanced worker.

May I advance my opinion on the matter?

He read widely among the most advanced thinkers of his age.

3.教师用投影仪打出以下表格,学生利用课文中所提供的信息填写表格,从而介绍伟大的科学家爱因斯坦的生平及他一生对人类所做出的巨大贡献(表见下页)

七八分钟后,请几位同学根据所填写的内容讲述,教师予以讲评。鼓励学生将自己整理的内容连在短文。

4.布置作业1)预习第14单元;2)完成练习册中安排的练习。

Say something about the great scientist Albert Einstein by filling up the form:

In

1879

Born in Germany

When he was a young boy,

Used to ask lot s of questions , didn’t enjoy school, found it hard to get along with others

By the time he was 14

Learned maths all by himself

From the year he was 17

Studied in Switzerland ,earned money to go no with his studies.

In 1905

Received a doctor’s degree

Between 1905~1915

Began the research and studies leading to his new discoveries

In 1918

Received world-wide praise for his research

In 1921

Won the Nobel Prize for physics;gave talks in many countries

In 1933

Left Europe for the USA;accept the job as a professor ; asked for little money ;never interested in becoming rich

In 1940

Took American nationality,spent time working for human rights and progress

In 1955

Died at the age of 76

试题详情

科目  英语

年级  高三

文件 high3 unit14.doc

标题  Roots (根)

章节  第十四单元

关键词  高三英语第十四单元

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

在本单元,同学们通过阅读课文“Journey into the unknown”和“Roots”,可以了解18 ? 19世纪白人捕捉和贩运黑人作奴隶及虐待他们的罪恶历史。

About “Roots

“Roots” is a well-known novel written by an American author ― Alex Haley , which was a best seller in the USA in the 1970s . “Roots ”is mainly about Haley’s family history , which covers seven generations’ history . In order to find out how his ancestors got to America , Haley did a lot of research and traveled around the USA and Africa looking for information about his ancestors . At last , in Gambia he got to find his roots ― Kunta and a group of the blacks who were caught and sold to America as slaves about 200 years ago .

The novel also describes what his ancestors suffered from during the journey to the USA . “Roots” was published in 1976 and Haley won the Pulitzer Prize in 1977 . Also he became world-famous .

单元双基学习目标

Ⅰ. 词汇学习

四会单词和词组:reason (v .) , roll over , give out

    三会单词和词组:in chains , daylight , from generation to generation , worthwhile

Ⅱ. 交际英语

expressing wishes , hope and desire

1. I wish to do … / I am going to do …

2. I want / hope / would like to … ; I intend / mean / plan to do …

3. I would do it if I had the chance .

4. If only I could do …

5. I wish I could do …/ I wish I had …/ I wish I were …

6. I wish you every success .

7. Good luck !

8. I feel like doing sth

9. I’m ready to do …

10. I would rather not tell you .

11. I have been looking forward to doing …

12. I’ve always dreamed of …

13. So do I .

Ⅲ. 语法学习

在本单元,同学们将对it的用法作以系统归纳,并具体理解高考中对it的测试热点。

【指点迷津】

单元重点词汇点拨

1. reason  vi . 评理;劝说;推断为;说服

I  reasoned that he was lying . 我断定他在撒谎。

〖点拨〗reason sb into doing = persuade sb into doing = persuade sb to do说服某人干……。reason sb out of说服某人不干……。

另外要注意当reason作名词时常用于:The reason (why) … is that …。the reason for sth和 the reason to do sth是“……的理由。”

The reason (why) he got ill was that he didn’t pay attention to his health .

The reason why we don’t trust him is that he has often lied .

2. worthwhile值得的 ;值得花费时间和金钱的

She was offered a worthwhile job .

〖点拨〗It is worthwhile + to do (或者 ?ing ) 。如:It’s worthwhile visiting the museum . = It is worthwhile to visit the museum .

注意下面的“值得”表达:be worth doing ; be worthy of being done = be worthy to be done 。

如:The article is worthy of careful study . = The article is worthy of being studied carefully . = The article is worthy to be studied carefully . = The article is worth studying .

单元词组思维运用

1. roll over翻滚

The boys rolled over on the snow . How fun it was !

2. give out分发

All the new textbooks have been given out .

注意:give out还作“发出,放出;发表;精疲力竭;耗尽”。如:

The news was given out this morning .

The teacher’s patience at last gave out .

His strength gave out soon .

3. be born a free man生来是一个自由人

4.be in chains戴着镣铐

   put sb in chains给某人戴上手铐脚镣

5. be fixed to被固定到……

Will you please make sure the button has been fixed to the board ?

6. be in pain疼痛

7. cry softly to oneself独自轻声哭泣

8. be hit on the head被击在头部

When the thief tried to escape , a woman hit him on the head behind him .

9. reason with sb与某人理论

10. What was to become of them all ? = What would happen to them all ?

11. Worst was to come . 更糟糕的事要发生。

12. run the length of the ship从船的这一头延伸到另一头

13. fall sick with fever因发烧而病到

14. cry out for sth叫喊要某物;哭着要;恳求

Don’t take any notice of Johnny ; he cries out for nothing .

注意:cry out against大声疾呼反对。cry out大声呼喊。如:

The woman in the water cried out “Help !”

The people cried out against the unfair decision of the court .

15. once in a while偶尔,有时候

We go for a picnic in the park once in a while .

Once in a while the dog would run away , but usually he stayed in the yard .

16. open wide开大,睁大

What’s wrong with you ? First , Open you mouth wide , please . Let me take a look at your tongue and throat .

17. in daylight在阳光中

注意:at daylight黎明时。before daylight黎明前。

18. chain / tie  sb up = put sb in chains把某人铐起来

19. on one’s arrival某人一到达

On his arrival he set about correcting the compositions .

20. make copies of抄写

21. pass down传下来;传送;传递;遗传

The skill has been passed down over four generations .

22. from generation to generation一代一代地

注意:from one generation to another = generation after generation = from generation to generation

23. go back over centuries追溯几个世纪以前

24. come to a sad part讲述一段伤心的事情

25. play the role of扮演……的角色

He is good at playing the part of Maozedong

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

单元难点疑点思路明晰

1. Born a free man,he was now in chains . 他生来就是个自由人,现在却戴上了镣铐。

〖明晰〗(1) Born a free man为过去分词短语作状语,相当于一个让步状语从句的省略。完整句子为:Although he was born a free man . 再如:Beaten black and blue,he didn't go down on his knees . 虽然被打得遍体鳞伤,他仍不屈膝投降。

(2) in chains / irons 戴着镣铐;在囚禁中。如:

He was in chains and disgrace . 他被囚而受辱。

All the murderers in chains will soon be sentenced to death . 所有戴着镣铐的凶手很快就要被判处死刑。

已学过的由“in + 名词的复数”的介词短语如:

in pairs 成双地  / in circles 围成圆圈形  / in tears 哭着

One man had a head wound and was in pain . 一个人头部受伤,非常疼痛。

had a head wound=be wounded in the head

in pain 疼痛难忍。已学过的由“ in  + 名词的单数”的介词短语, 如: in public公开地  /in silence无声地  / in battle 在战斗中…

2. What was to become of them all,he wondered .他感到纳闷,他们的下场将会怎样呢?

〖明晰〗(1) become of (人或事物的)结果是;使遭遇。如:What will become of her now that her husband has died ? 她丈夫一死,真不知她的遭遇将如何。

What has become of the book I put here yesterday ?我昨天放在这儿的书哪去啦?

(2) he wondered 置于句尾作插入语,意思是“他想知道”。

3. Worse  was  to come.更糟的事就要发生了。

〖明晰〗worse adj. (bad的比较级)更坏的、更差的、更恶化的。常用句式有:to  make  the matter worse (=and what is worse 或worse than all更糟的是。worse在本课作名词“更坏的事”,如:I have worse to tell. 我还有更坏的事要说。  Worse cannot happen.事情不可能更坏了。

4. They had rough weather, and Kunta's back bled from rolling over on the hard wooden boards . 途中天气非常恶劣,由于在硬木板上滚来滚去,昆塔的背流出了血。

〖明晰〗(1) bled 是动词bleed(流血)的过去式。如:His wound bled freely.他的伤口大量出血。/ He is bleeding like crazy from the stomach.她腹部流血不止。

(2) roll over从(边)上滚下;翻转;滚翻。如:

The policeman rolled the body over to look for the missing gun . 警察把尸体翻过来寻找失踪的手枪。

I had to hear Beethoven before I could ask him to roll over . 我得先听一下贝多芬曲,才能请他把唱片翻过来。

5. The moment he reached the country , he started his search .   他一到那个国      家,就开始寻找。

〖明晰〗the moment (instant , hour , time , minute) 以及directly, immediately, 都可用来引导时间状语从句,译作“一……就”,相当于as soon as.

如:(SEFC B2 L59) The young lady rushed into the room  immediately  she heard the noise . 那少女一听到响声,就冲进房间里。

6. All the stories of families, heroes, wars and journeys are passed  down  from generation to generation . 所有家族、英雄、战争以及旅行的故事都是一代代地传下来的。

〖明晰〗(1) pass down=hand down流传;遗传;传递。如:

The special technique has been passed down over four generations . 那种技术已传了四代。

(SEFC B3 L10)  customs and memories were handed down by the elders of the race . 传统习俗以及记忆中的人和物,被这个种族的年长者传了下来。

In poor families , clothes may be passed down from one child to the next . 在穷苦人家,一个小孩穿过的衣服会留给另一个年龄小的穿。

(2) from generation to generation 一代一代,世世代代(=generation after generation.)

7. A few people in each group are  given  the  task  of  remembering  the group's family history that goes back over centuries . 每一个部落中有几个人,他们的任务是记住这个部落追溯到几百年前的家族史。

〖明晰〗(1) go back to (=date from, trace back to );追溯,返回到。如:

His family goes back to the time of Norman Conquest . 他的家族可追溯至诺曼底人征服英国的时代。

She found her pocketbook when she went back to the store .  她回到店里找到了她的钱包。

(2) over centuries 在几百年中。over可表“在……期间;到……过完”。 如:(SEFC B3 L27) They had been built over period of six centuries up until 1431 . 他们都是在1431年以前长达六个世纪期间建成的。

over several decades 在几十年中 / stay over Sunday呆过星期天  / work over night 通宵工作。

8.  seize ,  take , grasp ,  arrest

〖明晰〗(1) seize“抓住”有猛然抓住并不脱手之意。如:

The policeman  seized the thief by the collar.   那个警察抓着小偷的衣领不放。

(2) take“抓住”,属一般用语。如:

He took his girl friend by the arm. 他抓着女友的胳膊。

(3) grasp“抓住,抓紧;抱住;理解,领会”。如:

Grasp  the  rope  and I'll pull you up. 抓住绳子,我就拉你上来。

I didn't quite grasp your meaning. 我不太理解你的意思。

(4) arrest  侧重于“逮捕;扣留;防止。”如:

He was arrested in suspicion  of having murdered the girl .  他因有谋害少女的嫌疑而被捕。

This newly  developed drug has arrested his cancer .   这种新药已控制住了他的癌症。

9 . make up one's mind,   decide,   determine

〖明晰〗(1) make up one's mind“决心;认定”,后接不定式或that从句,mind随人称而变化。如:

We've made up our minds to devote our  lives  to  serving  the  people heart and soul . 我们决心把全部生命用于全心全意地为人民服务。

The crop is ruined, so we must make up our minds to that . 庄稼损坏了,我们必须承认那个事实。

(2) decide 指经过考虑或讨论研究作出决定,后接不定式,介词on / upon或从句。 如:

He decided on taking the position at the bank.=He decided to take the position at the bank . 他决定担任很行的职务。

(3) determine“决心、坚决”,侧重表示决心已下定,任何力量都动摇不了这种决心。 其后常接不定式, 也可接 on / upon + ing 。 如:

His mother has determined to give him a chance . 他母亲决心给他一次机会。

10. give out , give away , give back , give forth , give in , give  off , give  over ,  give up

〖明晰〗(1) give out 放出、发生;宣称,公布,发表;分配,分发;用完,耗尽; 精疲力竭。如:

The teacher's patience at last gave out . 老师终于失去了耐心。

His strength gave out . 他筋疲力尽。

(2) give away 赠送;出卖;泄露 / give back 归还;返射 / give forth 放出, 发出(声音,气味等);发表,公布give in投降;屈服,让步;交上 / give off 发出  (蒸气、光、烟等)/give over 移交,交托 / give up 让给;放弃,抛弃。

11. familiar to , familiar with

〖明晰〗(1) familiar to=well known to sb“为人所熟知”,其中to为介词,to 后常跟      人。如:

I've been away a long time, and that name is not familiar to me .  我出外很久了,这名字我不熟悉。

(2)familiar with=well acquainted with“精通、熟知、通晓”。be familiar with的主语一定是人,with后的宾语可人、可物。如:He is  familiar  with Shakespeare . 他精通莎士比亚的作品。

I am not very familiar with botanical names . 我对植物学上的名称不太熟悉。

12 . what kind of doctor 与 what kind of a doctor

〖明晰〗(1)“what kind / sort of”是问类别,所以:What kind of doctor is he ? 他是 哪科的医生?

(2)“what kind / sort of a (an)”是问程度、性质等具体情况。所以:what kind of a doctor is he ? 他是怎么样的医生?(含医术是否高明,待人处事的能力等)

【妙文赏析】

The Capital of the United States

When George Washington became the first President of the United States , there was no permanent (永久的) capital . During the Revolutionary War seven different cities had served as the national capital . In addition , the members of Congress (议会) could not agree to where this permanent capital should be located (位于) .Some officials wanted it in the North , others wanted it in the South . Each of the states hoped that the capital might be set up within its own state lines .

At last it was decided that the capital should occupy (占有) a section by itself , separate from any of the states . The place chosen was situated on the Potomac River . The land then belonged to the state of Maryland , but Maryland agreed to give it to the national government . The section was named the District of Columbia, after Christopher Columbus . The city itself was named Washington , after George Washington .

Work was begun on the new capital in 1791 . In the year 1800 Congress occupied the new Capital Building . The White House Was opened at the same time as the home of all future presidents .

1 . There was no permanent capital in the United States when George Washington became the first President of the United States because ______ .

A . people didn't like the new government

B . there was not enough money to build the capital

C . American people were too busy fighting to think of the problem of building the capital

D . people had a disagreement about the location of the capital

2 . Which of the following is implied (暗示的) but not stated in the passage ?

A . George Washington's office was perhaps not in the White House .

B . Seven cities used to be the capital of the United States .

C . The North and the South couldn't agree with each other on the problem of the capital .

D . George Washington was the first president of the United States .

3 . The Potomac River _______ .

A . is the longest river in its country

B . separates the capital from the state of Maryland

C . flows through the state of Maryland

D . was given to the national government by Maryland

4 . Which of the following is not true according to the passage ?

A . The White House has a history of about 200 years .

B . The District of Columbia belongs to none of the states .

C . Congress occupied the new Capital Building until 1800 .

D . The White House is a place where American presidents live and work except George Washington .

答案:1. D  2. A  3. C  4. C

【思维体操】

常见阅读理解题的解题技巧

一般说来,阅读理解的题型设置大致可分为六种类型:事实询问、推理判断、数据推算、识图解意、主旨大意、规律常识。做好这六种题型,需要掌握一定的方法和技巧。

试题详情

科目  英语

年级  高三

文件 high3 unit15.doc

标题  Study skills(学习技能)

章节  第十五单元

关键词  高三英语第十五单元

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

单元双基学习目标

Ⅰ.词汇学习

enlarge , remind sb of , fix a date for , appreciate, long-term , encouragement

Ⅱ. 交际英语

Invitations and responses (邀请与应答)

发出邀请时可以说:

1. Will you come to …?

2. Would you like to do ?

3. I’d like to invite you to …

4. Are you free on Sunday ?

5. If you’re not doing anything on Monday morning , would you like to do …

6. We’d like you to join us .

7. Do join me for a coffee .

8. We’re having a dance on Sunday . I hope you will come .

9. Would you do me the pleasure of attending our wedding (婚礼) ? = May we have the pleasure of your company at our wedding ?

10. I’d very much like you to come to our dinner party .

接受邀请时常用:

1. Yes , I’d love to .

2. Yes , that’s very kind / nice of you .

3. I’d love to , but …

4. How nice !

5. I’d like to … , but … . Thank you all the same .

Ⅲ. 语法学习

复习和归纳句子的成分 ―― 谓语;复习情态动词和实义动词的时态。

在情态动词中要重点掌握情态动词的完成时的用法。如:should have done与should not have done , needn’t have done , must have done

另外,复习主谓一致的测试热点。

【指点迷津】

这些一致你了如指掌吗 ?

1. 主语 people 作“人们,人民”解时,谓语动词用复数,作“民族”解时,有单复数之分。如:

    Our people is a great one .

    There are 56 peoples in China .

2 . 主语是 a / this / that kind of + 名词,谓语用单数形式,主语指的不是一种而是多种,谓语动词用复数。如:

    This kind of cloth feels soft .

    There are different kinds of animals .

3 . 主语是“each of … ”,“neither of … ”,“either of …  ”,“one of  … ”等时,其谓语用单数。如:

    Each of them has his own duty .

4 . 陈述部分用 everybody , everyone , somebody , someone , anybody , anyone , nobody , no one 或 no + 复数名词等作主语时,反意部分用 they。而陈述部分用 everything , something , nothing , anything 时,反意部分代词则采用单数,用 it 。

    Somebody is waiting for you , aren't they ?

    Everything is all right , isn't it ?

5 . 动名词或动词不定式作主语,其谓语用单数形式。

    When and where to build the new factory is not decided yet .

6 . 用引号的词语作主语时,谓语用单数第三人称。

    “I” is the ninth letter of the English Alphabet .

7 . 在强调结构中如被强调的是句子的主语,则 who 或 that 后面的谓语动词的人称和数应和主语一致。

    It is Mike who always helps me study maths after class .

8 . wish 后接宾语从句用虚拟语气,如表示与现在事实相反,无论主语是单数还是复数,be 动词用 were。

    I wish I were ten years younger .

9 . police , cattle 等集合名词作主语时,谓语用复数。

    The murderer has run away . The police are searching for him .

10 . 算式中表示数目的主语通常看作单数,其谓语常用单数形式,也可用复数。

    Five times four is twenty .

11 . youth 作“青年们”解作主语时,谓语用复数。

    The youth of China today are doing their best to study modern science and technology .

12 . each 作同位语放在复数主语后,谓语不受单数 each 的影响。如:

    The boy and the girl each have their own toys .

13 . 当 with 引出的短语结构后面出现 both 时,with 的含义变成 and ,此时谓语动词应该用复数形式。如:Martin with his wife ,both working in the same company , have decided that they would send their little daughter to the nearest kindergarten .

14 . “one of + 复数名词 + 谓语”是固定结构,谓语动词用单数。但是,在“one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”句型中,定语从句的谓语用复数;若 one of 的前面有 the , the only 时,谓语仍用单数。试对比:

He is one of the people who always help others .

She is the only one of my guests that comes from India .

15 . 主语是以-ics 结尾的学科名词以及 news , works , (工厂) , politics 等都属形式复数,而意义单数的名词,其谓语用单数形式。另外 means 一词单复数同形应视具体情况而定。

    Mathematics seems to be difficult to learn .

    A new means of teaching is being used in that school .

注:学科名词前如有物主代词修饰时,谓语常用复数。如:My mathematics are week .

16 . 主语是用作书名、剧名、报纸名、国名等的复数名词,谓语一般用单数形式。

    The United States is a developed country .

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

单元重点词汇点拨

1. enlarge扩大;变大;增多

We enlarge the playground last year .

〖点拨〗enlarge on / upon详述;细说

Could you enlarge on / upon the point ?

2. encouragement鼓励;激励;促进

He received a lot of encouragement from his teacher . 老师给了他很大的鼓励。

〖点拨〗encourage sb to do鼓励某人干…… 。encourage sb in助长。如:

The boss encouraged me to study abroad .

Don’t encourage him in his laziness .

encouraging鼓舞人心的,encouraged被鼓舞的。如:

They were encouraged by the encouraging news .

3. appreciate欣赏;感激;赏识

His works were not appreciated until after his death . 直到死后,他的作品才受到重视。

You will appreciate his novels better if you read his past .

〖点拨〗appreciate / enjoy + doing欣赏干……。

Do you appreciate driving minibus ?

单元词组思维运用

1. remind sb of使某人想起 ……

He reminded me of his kind father .

I was reminded of my promise .

注意:remind sb that ……使人想起。remind sb to do提醒某人做某事。

She reminded me that I hadn’t watered the flowers .

Remind me to mail this letter after work .

I reminded him to work hard .

2. fix a date for确定……的日期

Let’s fix a date for a picnic this weekend .

注意动词fix的词组:fix one’s eyes on / upon凝视。如:His eyes were fixed on the photo on the wall .

3. pick up a travel book拿起一本游记

4.dip into随便翻阅;浏览

I have only been able to dip into your book yet ; I hope soon to be able to read it seriously .

I can’t say that I know a great deal about modern painting ― I’ve just dipped into one or two books on the subject .

5. read bits here and there这儿看一点那看一点

6. turn to翻到;求助于

Please turn to Page 30 .

We must turn to our monitor to finish such a thorough cleaning .

7. if you wish如果你想要的话

8. an article of clothing一件衣物

注意:a suit of clothes一套衣服

9. above all最重要的是

注意:in all总共,first of all首先。

10. refer to

Don’t get angry . The person he referred just now isn’t you .

11. take turns to do轮流干……

12. shut up闭嘴;住口;关闭

For heaven’s sake , shut him up , he’s said quite enough already .

Shut up ! You’re just talking nonsense .

We got the house shut up only minutes before the storm hit . 在暴风雨来临之前几分钟,我们才把屋子的门窗关闭起来。

13. talk things through充分透彻地谈问题

14. make good (great , rapid , much , little ) progress in

15. agree on a time在时间上意见一致

16. a letter in reply回信

17. in the immediate future不久的将来

单元难点疑点思路明晰

1. But not all stories belong to this class . 但并不是所有小说都属于这一级别。

〖明晰〗(1) not与all , both , every ,  always ,  altogether ,  entirely , everybody ,  everything ,  everywhere连用表达部分否定。如:

All is not lost that is in danger . (谚)处于危险中并非就是失败。(祸福难分)

The good and the beautiful don't always go together . (Shakespeare) 善和美不一定时常是相连的。

(2) class 在本课作“等级,种类”讲。如:

travel third class 乘三等车(或舱)旅行/He is doing first class.他干得      非常好。/It's one of the second-class public schools.那是一所一流的公立学校。

2. Second , do not stop every time you come to a word or phrase you do  not know . 第二,不要每碰到一个不认识的单词或短语就停下来……。

〖明晰〗Every time, each time “每次,每当,无论何时”以及by the time “到……时” 可相当于连词引导时间状语从句。如:

Every time I meet him , he tries to borrow books from me . 每当我遇到他,他总是向我借书。

By the time he was 15 , he had already had his own laboratory . 到他15岁时,他已经有了自己的实验室。

3. …by the end of the chapter you will have guessed its meaning . 到了全章快读完时,你就会猜出这个词的意思了。

〖明晰〗(1)由by the end of…引出的短语,主句常用过去完成时或将来完成时。如:

By the end of last month, they had produced 1000000 candles .

By the end of this century, China will have become a socialist country . 到本世纪底,中国必将成为一个社会主义强国。

(2) will / shall + have + p.p. 构成将来完成时,该时态可表将来某一时刻前已完成的动作,也可表说话人对某一业已先成的事态的推测。如:

He will have gained his pilot's license before his next birthday . 他下个生日前会拿到飞行证的。

You will have received an invitation to the wedding as well . 你肯定会收到参加婚宴的邀请的。

4. …and is therefore likely to be an article of clothing . 因此很可能是一件衣服。

〖明晰〗likely常用于sth / sb + be + likely to do很可能干但possible , probable , impossible ,  improbable 却不用人作主语 , 常用 : It + be + possible / probable (for sb)   +  to do.      如:

He is likely to be the best poet here . 他很可能是这最好的诗人。

It is impossible that he can finish the task in such a short time . 他不可能在如此短的时间内完成这项任务。

(本课最后一段中)If you hate  science  stories ,   you  are  unlikely  to enjoy reading them in English . 如果你不喜欢科幻小说,那么你不大可能喜欢读英文版的科幻小说。

5. In other words , I should not watch TV, or look over your  shoulder  at  other people while we are talking together . 换句话说,我们在一起交谈时,我不应该看电视或越过你肩膀看别人。

〖明晰〗(1) in other words 换句话说 (= that is , that is to say)

(2) look over 从…上面看过去;查看;检查。如:

Don't look over your shoulder while walking on such a slippery road . 在过如此滑的路面时,请匆扭头张望。

The secretary spent a night looking over her notes . 秘书花了一夜时间查看她的记录。

6. First , take turns to listen . 首先  轮流做听众。

〖明晰〗take turns“依次,轮流”后常接不定式,at+ing或直接加-ing 。表示“轮流”的介词词组有 in turn 和 by turns 。如:

take turns to watch over the oxen = take turns (at)  watching  over  the  oxen = watch over the oxen in turn = watch over the oxen by turns .  轮流看护牛群。

(本课最后一段)If friends can take turns to listen to each other well,  life will be better ! 如果朋友们之间能轮流做好听众,生活就会更美好!

7. hobby , habit , custom , practice

〖明晰〗 (1) hobby (业余)爱好;嗜好,消遣。如:

Reading children's literature is a hobby with my nephew . 我侄侄在业余时间爱读儿童文学消遣。

He collects butterflies for a hobby . 他以搜集各种蝴蝶为业余爱好。

Growing roses is her hobby . 养玫瑰花是她的爱好。

(2) habit“习惯”,侧重于强调一时期内不自觉地形成的,并且不易去掉的个人习惯。如:

Smoking is a bad habit . 吸烟是种坏习惯。

habit 的常见搭配有:be in the / a habit of , have the / a habit of 有……的习惯,break away from / off a habit改掉一种习惯, get / fall into  the  habit   of 养成……习惯。

(3) custom“习惯;习俗”,指经过一个较长的时间而形成的社会或地区性风俗。如:

It is the custom to dye eggs at Easter . 在复活节染鸡蛋壳已成为习俗。

(4) practice“习惯”,指惯常的做法。如:

I don't like her practice of going to bed late every evening . 我不喜欢他每天晚睡的做法。

8 .above all , in all , after all , all in all , for all

〖明晰〗 (1) above all 首先,首要,尤其。如:

Never waste anything . Above all , never waste time . 任何东西都不可浪费,尤其不可浪费时间。

(2) in all 总共,共计。如:

Shall I pay you the money in part or in all ? 这笔款子我该给你部分地付还是全部付清泥 ?

(3) after all 毕竟,终究,终归。如:

He said he would not come in, but he came in after all . 他说他不进来,但他毕竟进来了。

(4) all in all总的来说,总计;完全地。如:

The book has some weak spots , but  all  in  all. I  consider  it  a success . 这本书有一些缺点,然而总的来说我认为它是成功的。

(5) for all 尽管。如:

For all his wealth , he is unhappy . 尽管他很有钱,他并不快乐。

9. shut up , shut down , shut away , shut in , shut off , shut out

〖明晰〗 (1) shut up 闭嘴,住口。如:

Shut up ! You're just talking nonsense . 住口!你这是在说废话。

(2) shut down 停工,停业。如:

The automobile plant was shut down for two months as a reasult of  the strike . 那家汽车厂由于罢工关闭了两个月。

(3) shut away 限制,隔离,禁闭。如:

Important prisoners were shut away in a remote mountain village . 重要的犯人被监禁在偏僻的山林里。

(4) shut in 围住;关进;禁闭(= shut away)。如:

The house was shut in by factories all round . 这房子周围都被工厂围住。

(5) shut off 关停(煤气,水电等)。如:

They shut off the gas and electricity in their house before leaving  on holiday . 他们假日离家前把煤气和电都关掉。

(6) shut out 不让……进来,把……关在外面(= keep…out of)。如:

The late comers were all shut out of the stadium . 迟到者都被关在体育场外面不让进去。

10. enlarge, expand , extend , widen , broaden , grow , increase

〖明晰〗 (1) enlarge“扩大”,指面积,体积和范围的扩大及能力的增大,不指重量、 速度,时间等。如:

an enlarged meeting扩大会议/The city has enlarged.城市面积扩大了。 /The  business is enlarging. 企业在不断扩大。/Reading a lot enlarges the mind. 大量阅读使人增长才智。

(2) grow“成长,长大”,常用于人、生物的长大,数量的增长不用grow。如:

(SEFC B3 L26) So certain types of plant grow all over  the  stones  and  their roots go down into the holes between the stones . 所以某些种类的植物在这些石头上面长满了, 它们的根深深钻进石块之间的洞穴      之中。

(3) increase 指数量、程度、财富、权力的“增加、增长”。如:

Total industrial output value increased by 8% .  工业总产值增长了百分之八。

(4) expand 膨胀大,extend 延伸长,widen 和 broaden 为“加宽后扩大”。

【妙文赏析】

as poor as a church mouse

    教堂 ( church ) 是教徒们进行宗教活动的地方,教徒们虔诚地作礼拜,当然没有人在这里吃东西,自然也不会有食品橱,一切都为得庄严肃穆。所以老鼠想在教堂里找吃的东西,根本的枉费心机,教堂里的老鼠 ( a church mouse ) 是非常穷的,所以就有 as poor as a church mouse 的说法,指某人一贫如洗。请看例句:

    You want to borrow money from him ? He is as poor as a church mouse .你想向他借钱 ? 他一贫如洗。

英语词语掌故浩如烟海、源远流长,经历了岁月的磨练,凝聚着民众的智慧,它简洁、生动、含蓄幽默,涉及到民间传说、神话寓言、风俗时尚、历史背景、名人佚事等等各个方面,英语词语掌故不仅能帮我们开拓视野、扩大知识面,而且还有助于我们了解英国语言文学的起源和发展,因此了解、熟悉英语词语掌故无疑是学好英语的一条必不可少的途径。

【思维体操】

“心”译

1. after one’s heart                                        2. a heart of gold

3. find in one’s heart to                                 4. have sth at heart

5. heart and soul                                    6.heart to heart

7. pluck up one’s heart                                  8. put one’s heart into

9. with a light heart                                      10. with one’s whole heart

答案:1、称心如意  2、道德高尚  3、心甘情愿  4、牢记在心  5、全心全意  6、开诚布公  7、鼓起勇气  8、专心致志  9、轻松愉快  10、诚心诚意

 三、智能显示

【心中有数】

单元语法发散思维

一、易错用的主谓语一致 14 点

1.  each + 名词 + and each + 名词用作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

    〔 错例 〕Each boy and each girl have got an apple .

    〔 改正 〕改 have 为 has .

    〔 归纳 〕下面两种情况,动词也用单数:

             A . every + 名词 + and every + 名词作主语时:

             Every man and every  woman in the village is here .

             B . no + 名词 + and no + 名词作主语时:

             No teacher and no student has seen the film .

2. 当一个人兼两种身份而作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

    〔 错例 〕Her teacher and friend often help her to paint .

    〔 改正 〕改 help 为 helps。

    〔 归纳 〕两个名词用 and 连接用作主语,重复使用冠词和不重复使用冠词时,动词可能不一样。下列短语作主语时,应视为复数 ( 第二个冠词省略了 ) :              a boy and girl , a man and woman , the Chinese and Japanese language , the oil and textile industry , a teacher and student , a cow and ox等。如:比较:

    A journalist and a novelist have come to see you .

    A journalist and novelist has come to see you .

    A man and  woman  are walking on the street .

3.and 连接的两个名词表达一个共同的概念或一个完整的东西时应视作单数。

    〔 错例 〕A cart  and horse   are seen coming to us .

    〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。

    〔 归纳〕以下名词短语都可视作单数。a  watch and chain 一块带链的表,a needle and thread 一套针线,a knife and fork 一副刀叉,a cup  and saucer 一套碟子茶杯,a coat and tie 一件上衣带领带,bread and butter 奶油面包,aim and end 目的,truth and honesty 真诚,child care and education 对孩子的管教,time and tide 岁月,the long and short of it 总的意思,iron and steel 钢铁,law and order 治安,soup and salad 汤与凉拌菜 ,hard  struggle and plain living 艰苦奋斗与生活简朴。

4. Mary a + 单数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

    〔 错例 〕Many a scientist have devoted their lives to science .

    〔 改正 〕改have 为 has

    〔 归纳 〕A . a great many , a  good many 都需要接复数名词,作主语时,动词用复数。B . more  than one + 名词作主语时,动词用单数。C. more than one 不接名词时,动词用单数或复数都可以。D.在 there be 结构里用单数或复数。如:There is ( 或 are ) more than one student in the classroom .

5. one and a half …与 a + 名词 + or two 作主语

〔 错例 〕One and a half cakes are left on the plate .

〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is 。

〔 归纳 〕one and half + 名词作主语习惯上视作单数,但名词需要用复数形式。One or two + 名词作主语时视作复数;而 a + 名词 + or two 作主语时却可视作单数或复数。如:

There are one or two things I want to tell you .

A word or two is ( 或 are ) needed here . 这儿还需要一两个词。

6 . ( together ) with + 名词不影响原来主语的人称和数。

   〔 错例 〕Mr.Wang , together with his wife , have gone to Australia .

   〔 改正 〕改 have 为 has。

   〔 归纳 〕下列词语与名词连用均不影响原来主语的人称和数:as well as , along with , as much as , but , except , in company with , more than , no less than , like , rather than , plus 等。           

7 . 数词 + 名词表示重量、长短、距离、钱数、分数、时间等作主语时,动词用单数。

    〔 错例 〕Twenty years are too long for a man's life .

    〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。

    〔 归纳 〕动词用单数是因为我们把这些复数名词看成一个整体。如:

            Three hours is enough for  him to perform the operation .

            表示艰苦难熬的岁月、时日作主语时动词也可用复数。如:

            The first fifty years are the hardest . 最初的五十年是最艰难的。

8 . A number of books 与 The number of books 作主语时应选用数不相同的动词。

    〔 错例 〕The number of books are twenty-three .

    〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。

    〔 归纳〕A . the number of…意思是“…的数目;……的号码”,作主语时,动词用单数;a number of…意思是“许多…”,作主语时,动词用复数。如:The number of the key is 207 .

B . the average of + 名词作主语时动词用单数:an average of + 名词作主语时动词用复数。如:

    The average of letters received each week is 600 . 平均每周收到的信件是600件。

    An average of 600 letters a week are received by the newspaper's office .  报馆每周平均收到600封信。

9.a basket of eggs 等作主语,动词用单数。

    〔 错例 〕A basket of pears are not enough for them .

    〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。

    〔 归纳 〕下面短语作主语时,动词也用单数:a basket of ( eggs ) 一篮 ( 鸡蛋 ) ,a cluster of ( grapes ) 一串 ( 葡萄 ) , a pile of ( apples ) 一堆 ( 苹果 ),    a team of ( football players ) 一队 ( 足球运动员 ) 。但 a group of ( students ) 作主语时,动词通常用复数。但:A group of girls are playing hide-and-seek .

10 .The rest ( of + 名词 ) 作主语时,动词不一定用单数。

    〔 错例 〕The  rest of the students is girls .

    〔 改正 〕改 is 为 are。

    〔 归纳 〕下面的词语作主语或作主语修饰语时则根据这些词所代表的名词的数或修饰的名词的数来决定动词的单、复数:Who , what , which , all , any , more , most , some , a lot of , lots of , plenty of  , quantities of 以及 half , part , the rest , the remainder , 分数,百分数等。试对比:

    Which are yours , the green ones or the red ones ?

    Which is  yours , the big one or the small one ?

    There is only a little ink . All is here .

  There are three books here . All  a re written in English .

    Twenty percent of the skin has been burnt .

    Twenty percent of the machines are exported .

    Two -thirds of the surface of the earth is water .

    Three-thirds of the books are novels .

11. 某些集体名词作主语,意在其成员时,动词应该用复数。

    〔 错例 〕Our family is all early risers .

    〔 改正 〕改 is 为 are。

    〔 归纳 〕这一类名词有: class 班,club 俱乐部,crew 全体船员 ( 乘务员 ) ,committee 委员会,couple 一对夫妇,crowd 人群,group 组、队 , audience 观众,听众,family 家庭,firm 公司;商号,flock 一群人,government 政府,public 公众,union 工会;联合会,team 队,England ( football team ) 英格兰足球队,等。这些名词用作主语时,如被看作整体,动词用单数,代词可用 it,its,which。如果是指该整体的成员,动词应用复数,代词用 they,their , who。但要注意主语、动词、代词在数方面的一致。如:

    不可说:The crowd moves on . No one tries to stop them .

    应该说:The crowd moves on . No one tries to stop it .

    The class is big .

    The class are practising swimming .

12. the country 可指“全国人民”,作主语时,动词用单数。

   〔 错例 〕The country are opposed to war .

   〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。

   〔 归纳 〕表示“全体人”的这类名词还有:city , college , factory , house , school , table , town , university , world 等。它们与 the 连用作主语时,动词应该用单数。如:

    The whole table has heard what he said .

    The whole university is against the changes .

    整个大学的人都反对这些改变。

    The world knows that pollution has become a serious problem .

    世界人民知道,污染已成了严重问题。

13. the + 形容词作主语时,动词不一定用复数。

   〔 错例 〕The old is respected in our country .

   〔 改正 〕改 is 为 are 。

   〔 归纳 〕定冠词 + 形容词时,如表示一类人作主语时,动词用复数。常见的这一类有:the absent 缺席者,the aged 老年人,the brave 勇敢者,the dead 死人,the dying 要死的人,the deaf and mute 聋哑人,the disabled 残疾人,the exploited 被剥削者,the homeless 无家可归的人,the living 活着的人,the lost 失踪的人,the old 老年人,the oppressed 被压迫者,the poor 穷人,the present 出席的人,the rich 富人 ,the sick 病人,the strong 强者,the weak 弱者,the wise 聪明人,the  wounded 伤员,the young 青年人等。

14. 用 either…or 连接的两个名词或代词作主语时,最接近动词的名词或代词决定动词的单、复数。

   〔 错例 〕Either you or I are  wrong .

   〔 改正 〕改 are 为 am。

   〔 归纳 〕涉及到类似用法的连词有 or , not only…but ( also ) 和 neither…nor。如:

    You , he or I am to be sent to the front .

    Neither you nor I  am a doctor .

    Not only you but also he has been to the Great Wall .

    Are either you or he against this plan ?

【动脑动手】

单元能力立体检测

    1 . 美丽的长城值得一看。

    误:The beautiful Great Wall is worth to visit .

    正:The beautiful Great Wall is worth visiting .

    析:worth 是形容词,后面要跟名词或动词 - ing 形式,不能跟动词不定式。如将上面的 to visit 改成 a visit 也是正确的。

    2 . 到了上学期末,我已学习将近两千个英语单词。

    误:By the end of last term , I learned nearly two thousand English words .

    正:By the end of last term , I had learned nearly two thousand English words .

    析:这里的 by 有“before ( 在……之前 ) ”或“not later than ( 不迟于 ) ”的意思,表示“在 ( 某时 ) 前”或“到某时”已发生某事或出现某种情况,谓语动词多用完成时态。句中是“上学期末”,所以用过去完成时态。

    3 . 那人走过来夺了老人的包。

    误:The man came over and took the possession of the old man's bag .

    正:The man came over and took possession of the old man's bag .

    析:“take possession of”意为“夺取、占有”,是固定的表达方式,一般在 possession 前面不用 the。

    4 . 这些动物对美洲土著人的生活有很大影响。

    误:These animals had a great effect to the life of Native Americans .

    正:These animals had a great effect on the life of Native Americans .

    析:“have an effect on ( upon ) ”是固定搭配,意为“对……有影响”,“对……起作用”,effect 后面跟介词要用 on 或 upon,不能随意改动。

    5 . 他突然间击了她的头。

    误:All of a sudden he hit her on her head .

    正:All of a sudden he hit her on the head .

    析:汉语中“打某人的头”,在英语中常用“hit + sb .  + on + the + 身体部位”这样的结构。值得注意的是其中冠词 the 不能用物主代词代替。又如:

    He hit the boy in the face . 他打了孩子的脸。 ( face 前面要用 the , 不能用物主代词。 )

    6 . 他没有逃跑得了,被俘了。

    误:He failed to run away and was taken the prisoner .

    正:He failed to run away and was taken prisoner .

    析:“to take prisoner”,意为“被监禁”、“被俘”,是个习语,prisoner 前面不能用冠词。但是 take 这个动词可以用 keep 或 hold 代替。又如:    He was taken ( held , kept ) prisoner in a small island . 他被囚禁在一个小岛上。

    7 . 他一到达,就被卖给一个农民当奴隶。

    误:At his arrival he was sold to a farmer as a slave .

    正:On his arrival he was sold to a farmer as a slave .

    析:“on one's arrival”是一个习语,其中介词要用 on,不能用别的词代替。

    8 . 报社给他提供了一些资金。

    误:His newspaper provided him some money .

    正:His newspaper provided him with some money .

    析:“为某人提供某物”,用 provide 表达有两种方式,一是“provide sb . with sth . ”,另一种是“provide sth . for sb . ”,也就是说要用介词搭配,误句中少用了介词。度比较:

    The government is trying to provide the unemployed with jobs .  (  = The government is trying to provide jobs for the unemployed .  ) 政府正力图为失业者提供就业机会。

    9 . 他一登台,我就认出他来了。

    误:I recognized him the moment when he appeared on the stage .

    正:I recognized him the moment he appeared on the stage .

    析:the moment 虽是名词,但在这儿可以作连词用,相当于 as soon as , 因此后面再用 when 就是多余的了。类似的名词如 the minute , the second 等也可以这样。上面正句里的 the moment 也可以用 the minute , the second 来代替。又如:

    The moment / minute / second you arrive at the port , please telephone me . 你一到达港口,就请给我打个电话。

    10 . 你们当中一人扮演哈利,另一个人扮演记者。

    误:One of you plays role of Harley , and the other role of a reporter .

    正:One of you play the role of Harley , and the other the role of a reporter .

    析:role 作“角色”解,通常构成“play ( take ) the role of .  .  . ”结构,意为“扮演……角色”。这是固定搭配,“the”不可少。又如:

    He wishes to take ( play ) the role of a king . 他想扮演国王。

    但是,role 前可以用形容词修饰,例如:

    Both of them wanted to play ( take ) the leading role . 他们俩都想演主角。

    11 . 他每次进城总要拜访他的老师。

    误:Every time he came to the city , he would visit his teacher .

    正:Every time he came to the city , he would visit his teacher .

    析:“every time”是个名词词组,用作从属连词,引出时间状语从句,意为“每一……就……”。不能像误句那样连写。又如:

    Copy it down every time you come to a beautiful sentence . 每当你碰到一个漂亮的句子就把它抄下来。

    12 . 年轻人应该永远尊敬老年人。

    误:Youth should always show the respect to old age .

    正:Youth should always show respect to old age .

    析:“show respect to”是一个习语,意思是“对某人表示尊重”,其中 respect 是不可数名词,前面不用冠词,但是可以有修饰词修饰。其中 show 可以用 have 代替,介词 to 也可用 for 代替。例如:

    She had / showed no respect to / for manager . 她对经理一点也不尊重。

    They have / show a great respect to / for the journalists .他们对记者非常敬重。

【创新园地】

写一篇短文,简述 Green School 受欢迎的原因。请在短文中包含以下内容:

1 . 历史悠久。

2 . 校园美丽。

3 . 设备良好。教学楼、实验室、语音室、计算机房、图书馆及体育馆都属全市最好的。

4 . 收费合理,每学期?3000。

5 . 教师出色,大部分毕业于名牌大学。他们耐心,有经验,热爱学生。

注意:不要逐条翻译。词数:110字左右。

(请同学们写好后把答案反馈给我们)

【创新园地】答案

Why is Green School so popular in our city ?

For one thing , the school has a long history . Its school garden is very beautiful with trees and flowers everywhere . It is also well equipped . The classroom buildings , the experiment labs and the sound labs , the computer rooms , the library as well as the gymnasium are among the best of all schools . Besides , the tuition is only 3000 a term , less than that of other schools . But the most important reason for its popularity is the excellent teachers in Green School . Most teachers graduated from well-known universities and colleges . They have great patience , much experience and especially , deep love for the students .

 

 

试题详情

科目  英语

年级  高三

文件 high3 unit4.doc

标题  Feed the World

章节  第四单元

关键词  高三英语第四单元

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

    本单元提出的是一个全世界都关注的问题:《全世界人的吃饭问题》。14-15两课是说明文。作者揭示了这样一个事实:世界人口不断增加,而耕地面积日益减少,世界每年要有十分之一的人中因饥饿而死亡。作者还指出了造成耕地面积减少的原因,并提出了改变这一现象的建议。

    建议教师可选择有关录像片帮助学生深刻认识:保护耕地和控制人口过快增长的重要性;用问答和讨论的方法完成本单元的知识和能力目标。

 

【指点迷津】

    本单元重点知识:

    A)单词和词组:

    *regret:

    v. be sorry for the loss of; wish to have again; feel sorry for懊悔;抱歉;遗憾。后接不定式与-ing意思不同。接不定式意为“遗憾要去做……”

;接-ing已为“已做……而后悔”。

    We deeply regretted his death.

    I regret to say that I can’t help you. (比I am sorry to say that…较为正式的表达)

    He regrets that he was rude to her.

    他后悔对她不礼貌。

    She regretted not having told you about it earlier.

    她后悔没有早点告诉你这件事。

    n. feeling of sadness at the loss of sth. or disappointment because sth. has or has not been done.懊悔;抱歉;遗憾。

    I feel regret at her absence.

    她没来,我感到很可惜。

    We heard with regret that you were not successful in your plan.

    听到你的计划没有成功,我们感到遗憾。

    I waste no time in useless regret.

    *provide: v.to supply; to prepare for提供;供给、装备;

    搭配为:provide sb. sth.; provide sth. for sb. provide sb. with sth.

    We can provide ourselves.

    我们现在可以自给自足了。

The mother provided them some thick clothes.

    母亲为他们准备了一些厚衣服。

    We must provide food for the trip.

    我们必须准备旅途中的食品。

    The Red Cross provides food and clothes for the sufferers.

    红十字会向难民提供食品和衣服。

*increase: v.[in’kris] to become greater in size, number, value etc.增加;繁殖。

    The population of this town has increased to 2000,000.

    城镇的人中去年增加了二十万。

    The population of this town increased by 10 percent last year.

    这个城镇的人口去年增加到二十万。

    There has been a big increase in road accidents.

    近来交通事故有所增加。

    注意:increase的n.名词读音与动词不同[‘ inkris],它的反义词为decrease v.减少;缩减。

    *now and again; occasionally; at times; now and then时而

    On my way home from school, I called on Granny Li now and again.

    在放学回家的路上,我时而去看望李奶奶。

    *help oneself to… serve oneself with food(drink) etc. 衣随便吃(喝)

    Please help yourself to some fish. It is fresh.

    鱼很新鲜,请随便尝尝。

    *day by day; as time goes by 逐日;一天一天地

    Day by day she learnt more about her work.

    她日益了解了自己的工作。

*look forward to(doing) sth. 欣然期待(去做)谋事。

The  little girl was looking forward to seeing her uncle from America.

    那个小姑娘正盼望着见到从美国来的叔叔。

    *be suitable for; be right for a purpose适宜的;适当的;恰当的。

    Do you think this present is suitable for a little boy?

    你认为这个礼物对于孩子合适吗?

    *be in debt: owe a lot of money 欠债

    The old man was in heavily debt in order to buy seeds.

    那位老人为了买种子身负重债。

    *make sense: have an understandable meaning有意义;有道理;讲得通;

    be sensible是明智的;是合情合理的。

    What you say makes no sense.

    你说的话没有道理。

    It doesn’t make sense to buy that expensive coat when these cheaper ones are just as good.

    这件便宜的大衣也很好,何必也买那件贵的。

    *earn one’s living: get money by working谋生; 挣钱生活

    I start to earn my own living this very afternoon.

    从今天下午开始,我自己挣钱养活自己了。

    *for one thing: (used to introduce a reason for sth.用以引出谋事的理由 )一来

    I’m afraid that I won’t be able to spend the weekend with you in Dalian. For one thing, I have no money and another I’m too busy.

    恐怕我不能和你一起去大连度周末了,一来我没有钱,二来我太忙。

    以上单词和词组可通过听对话录音,教师介绍过程中呈现,然后用问答讨论课文内容等方式再现以上单词和词组加深理解词义,掌握用法,紧后用句型转换或补全名子等方法巩固,开发运用。

    B)本单元应掌握的重点文法知识:名词性从句

    名词从句包括主语、表语、宾语和同位语从句。从总体上要注意两点:

    连接主句与从句的连词有副词why, how, where, when, whether, if,它们在从句中充当状语成份,个有不同的词意,因此不能省略。代词who, whom, whose, what, which, 它们在从句中充当主语、定语、宾语,个有不同的词意,因此也不能省略。在联系中取舍哪一个词,本着缺什么成份,把它补齐,使句子在结构上与含意上完整就可以了。不同的连词,名子的意思也不同。例如:

    Why/How/Where/When/Whether/Of what material the new house will be built hasn’t been decided yet.

    为什么/怎样/在什么地方/什么时候/是否/用什么材料建这座房子还没有定下来。

【学法指要】

    本单元语法难点:

1.掌握that在名词性从句中的用法。that在宾语从句中,不充当成份,也无词意,因此它可以省去;在主语、表语和同位语从句中,that虽然不充当成份,也无词意,但不能省略。

Today’s newspaper reports(that) sales of beef in China will increase.(宾语从句)

今天的报纸报道说,中国的牛肉销售量将会增加。

That land ownership in some countries is unfair is obvious.(主语从句)

在一些国家里,土地所有制的不公平是显而易见的。

The reason is that is has been raining for five days.(表语从句)

原因是已经下了五天的雨。

The reason that it has been raining for five days is why the crops has been flooded.

连续下了五天的雨,所以庄稼都泡在水里了。(同位语从句)

2.注意宾语从句中主句与从句谓语动词时态的呼应。

宾语从句中主句与从句谓语动词时态的呼应有三种情况:

A)主语谓语动词用现在和将来时态时,从句谓语动词可用任何所需要的时态。

Tom says that his sister is(was, will be) a doctor.

B)主句谓语动词用过去时态时,从句谓语动词则根据语境用过去时间的各种时态。这规律意也适用于主语、表语和同位语从句。

He thought the boy was honest.

I told him his brother was coming(would come).

We didn’t know whether they had finished their work.

注意:当从句说的内容是一般真理或客观事实时,从句谓语动词仍用一般现在时。

The mother told her little daughter that the earth goes round the sum.

    He told me that the train for Beijing leaves at 10:30.

    Somebody told me that you are a teacher.

3.否定转移

    当主句的动词是think, believe, suppose, expect时,从句的否定要前移。

I don’t think she is right.

 

【妙文赏析】

    Many centuries ago, all people had gathered seeds and plants to eat. They did not know how to farm or raise animals for food. Because they used stone tools and weapons, we call them the Stone Age people. There are people who still live much like these Stone Age people lived. They live in places that are hard to reach. Because they have met few outsiders, they do not know about modern inventions. They have not traded ways of doing things with others. For 25,000 years, groups of people have lived alone in the middle of Australia. One of the groups is the Aruba tatribe. They do not know how to farm, nor do they raise animals. The Artuntas spend most of their time searching for food and water. The men hunt animals with stone---tipped spears. The women and children look for roots, seeds and nuts. Several Artunta families live together. They have no houses. At night, they sleep around fires.

 

【思维体操】

    阅读下列广告,回答1-5问题。

WUHAN PLUMBING(水管) & HEATING

Since 1992

Plumbing and Heating Installation(安装)

LARGE OR SMALL

Free

ESTIMATE(估计)

24 Hours 7 Days Service

Payment Open

8267896

261 Dong Fang Road

Wuchang

    1.What is written above is _______.

      A. a notice                                         B. an address

      C. an advertisement                          D. a poster

    2.What service is offered free by Wuhan P.& H.?

      A. Installation                                          B. Quality of houses

      C. Estimates of costs                        D. Large or small repairs

    3.For which of the following problems would one call Wuhan P.& H.?

      A. A leak(漏) in the roof.

      B. Gas leak in the refrigerator.

      C. Something wrong with wall plugs.

      D. A broken bathroom pipe leaking water all over the floor.

    4.The person who calls Wuhan P.& H. may discuss _____.

      A. A duties            B. experience             C. cost                 D. salary

    5.Wuhan is in _____ Province.

      A. Hubei               B. Hebei                     C. Hunan             D. Henan

    答案:CCDCA

【心中有数】

    本单元的语法重点是名词性从句,而名词性从句的考查在高考试卷单项选择一题中一般情况下占20%,即在20个小题中有一个小题。如:

    1.─I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

      ─Is that _____ you had a few days off ?

      A. why           B. when        C. what        D. where   (NMET99)

    2.─It was _____ he said _____ disappointed me.

A. what; that                       B. that; that        

C. what; what                            D. that; what  (上海99)

    答案:1.A;2.A

分析:

句1:从题干和所给的4个选择中不难看出本题考查的是表语从句。“I drove to Zhuhai for the air show.”提出一个事实,而第二句表明“I”不在的原因。故答案为A.why。

    句2:该句考查的是强调句和主语从句。该句强调的是句中的主语,而该句的主语又是一个从句。从这个结构中可以看出第二个空和“It was”构成强调句,故第二个空应该是that;第一个空和“he said”构成主语从句;在这个从句中“said”一词后缺少宾语,故答案为A.what;that。

 

【动脑动手】

    同步训练

    I.单词拼写:

    1.A country is not likely to develop without industry and a____.

    2.Zhou Enlai will always be remembered as a great p_____.

    3.The dish is not salty. Do you mind pouring some s____ on it?

    4.Greatly to my r_____ , I am unable to accept your kind invitation.

    5.His death means a great l____ to science.

6.It is not _____(合适) to grow cash crops here.

    7.We don’t care what _____(材料) they really want.

    8.The problem was how they could ______(偿还) so much.

    9.They had to _____(承认) what they had done was wrong.

    10.Who has won the first place will not be _____(公布) until the game is over.

    II.单项选择

    A)同步训练

    11.I can not help _____ of my childhood _____  I see the wound in my leg.

       A. think, when                                B. thinking, whenever

       C. to think, when                                   D. thought, no matter when

    12.At the party we _____ to some ice cream.

       A. helped            B. to help            C. helping            D. were helped

    13.______ the orders or you will be punished.

       A. Have               B. Receive           C. Obey               D. Place

    14.─Is this machine _____ order or _____ good order?

       ─It works very well

A. in; in                                           B. out of; in 

C. in; out of                                     D. out of; out of

    15.We are all looking _____ the day when our country will be highly developed.

       A. at                    B. for                  C. up                   D. forward to

    16.The city was almost destroyed completely by an earth quake many years ago.

       A. damaged slightly   B. torn          C. ruined      D. broken

    17.The expedition _____ no loss of life and returned to their base on time.

       A. made                     B. got                  C. gained             D. suffered 

    18.If you want a plant to ____, you had better _____ it in the garden.

       A. plant; plant                                 B. grow; plant

       C. plant; grow                                 D. be grown; grow

    19.Last year farmers could not have their wheat crops _____ because of the bad weather.

A. increasing                                   B. decreased             

C. increased                           D. decreasing

    20.It didn’t take her long to work ____ that she would soon have no money left.

       A. at                    B. on                   C. for                   D. out

    B)语法训练

    21.It is _____ that the experiment should be made under low temperature.

       A. said                 B. reported          C. told                 D. suggested

    22.______ man first made use of electricity is not exactly known.

       A. When                     B. Whether          C. That                D. What

    23.______ this material will be used in the product has not been decided yet.

       A. If                    B. That                C. What               D. Whether

    24.______ we are saying is more than ______ we will do.

A. That; that                                    B. What; what           

C. As; as                                          D. Whatever; that

    25.Our doubt is _____ he can do the experiment alone.

       A. that                 B. if                     C. whether          D.what

    26.The reason ______ he didn’t come to our party was _____ he took a missing boy back home on his way here.

       A. why; because                       B. why; that

       C. that; why                             D. that; that

    27.Do you have no idea ______?

       A. how fast light travels          B. how fast does light travel

       C. how soon light travels         D. how rapid light travels

    28.Do you have no doubt _____ he will succeed in finding a new job?

       A. if                     B. whether          C. that                 D. whether or not

    29.I kept looking at the man, wondering _______.

A. whether had I had seen him before

B. where I had seen him before

       C. that I had seen him before

       D. when I had seen before

    30.The teacher told the children that man _____ any life on the moon.

       A. didn’t find                                 B. could not find

       C. doesn’t find                         D. hasn’t been able to find

    III.完型填空

    In the 17th century corn was grown a lot in Tibet and Sichuan. At that time the land along the Changjiang River was becoming very  31 ;there was not enough  32  for the population. Farmers had to move  33  the hills, but they  34  rice there. They needed plant which didn’t need  35  water as rice.  36  they were able to grow the new corn.

    Today, corn is found all over the world. It is a very useful plant that can be   37  in many different ways. People in the West often boil in   38  over an open fire. In many parts of the world corn  39  powder. The powder is then  40  water and other things, and made inot different kinds of food.

31.A. crowd

B. crowded

C. crowds

D. a crowd

32.A. rooms

B. places

C. room

D. place

33.A. into

B. in

C. to

D. on

34.A. hadn’t grown

B. didn’t grow

C. can’t raise

D. couldn’t grow

35.A. as many

B. as much

C. as much as

D. much as

36.A. Luckily

B. Unluckily

C. Fortunate

D. Unfortunately

37.A. cooking

B. to cook

C. prepared

D. done

38.A. all

B. whole

C. completely

D. each

39.A. makes into

B. be made to

C. be made from

D. is made into

40.A. mixed with

B. mixed to

C. mixing

D. to mix

IV.短文改错

Plants are very important living thing. Life could not

go on when there were no plants. This is why plants can

make food with air and, water, or sunlight. Animals and men

can’t make food with air, water or sunlight. Animals can get

its food by eating plants and other animals. Man gets his food by eating plants and animals, either. Therefore, animals, and

man need plants in order to live. This is that we find we find

such many plants around us. If you look carefully at the plants around you, you’ll find that there are many types plants. Some

plants are big, while others are small. Most of plants are green.

41.______

42.______

43.______

44.______

45.______

46.______

47.______

48.______

49.______

50.______

 

 

【创新园地】

    语言功能  从下列各题的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出一个最佳答案。

1.─My daughter has passed the exam.

      ─Congratulations! She’s really intelligent.

      ─_______

      A. No, no, she is intelligent.

      B. Oh, thank you!

      C. Sometimes she is intelligent.

      D. You are right.

    2.─You forgot to feed the cat again!

      ─________

      A. I can’t remember.

      B. I don’t mind feeding her again.

      C. I’ll do it now.

      D. Yes, I did. What about you!

3.─Mum, I’ve cut my finger. It’s bleeding!

      ─________

      A. Let me see.

      B. Don’t worry.

      C. Be careful

      D. Let me have a look

4.─What’s happened to my library book?

      ─________

      A. I’ve no idea.

      B. You borrowed them from the library.

      C. You bought them yesterday.

      D. They’re about long life.

5.─Where is Tom this morning?

      ─He’s got a cold.

      ─________

      A. Just tell him to take it easy.

      B. What’s the matter with him?

      C. He’s absent.

D. What? Where is he?

答案:

1.agriculture;  2.politician;  3.sauce;      4.regret;  5.loss

6.suitable;     7.materials;   8.repay;      9.admit;   10.announced

11-15BDCBD      16-20CDCCD     21-25BADBC   26-30BACBD

31-35BCADB      36-40ACBDA

Plants are very important living thing. Life could not

go on when there were no plants. This is why plants can

make food with air and, water, or sunlight. Animals and men

can’t make food with air, water or sunlight. Animals can get

its food by eating plants and other animals. Man gets his food by eating plants and animals, either. Therefore, animals, and

man need plants in order to live. This is that we find we find

such many plants around us. If you look carefully at the plants around you, you’ll find that there are many types plants. Some

plants are big, when others are small. Most of plants are green.

41.things

42.if

43.and

44.Ö

45.their

46.too

47.why

48.so

49.of

50.while

 

 

【创新园地答案】

1.B;              2.C;              3.D;              4.A;              5.A

 

 

 

 

 

试题详情

科目  英语

年级  高三

文件 high3 unit17.doc

标题  My teacher(我的老师)

章节  第十七单元

关键词  高三英语第十七单元

内容

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

同学们,当你阅读完“My Teacher”一课后,你一定会被主人公身残志不残、自强、自立和诲人不倦的光辉形象所打动。

单元双基学习目标

Ⅰ. 词汇学习

simple-minded , patience , laughter , burst into laughter , look back upon , wisdom , human being , priceless , gifted , throat

Ⅱ. 交际英语

Asking for permission and responses (征求许可与应答)

1. May / Can / Could I do … ?

2. I wonder if I could do … ?

3. Would / Do you mind if I … ?

4. Do you think I could do … ?

5. I was wondering if I could

6. Will you allow me to do … ?

7. Do you have any objection ?

8. I should like to do …

9. With your permission , I should like to …

10. I hope you don’t mind , but wouldn’t it be possible for me to do …… ?

11. As you wish . / If you like .

12. I don’t mind , just as you like . / I don’t mind your doing … .

13. Not at all , please . .

14. You are welcome to use …

15. Of course . / Yes . / Sure . / Certainly .

16. Go ahead . That’s OK . / That’s all right .

17. I’m sorry , you can’t . / I’m sorry , but … .

18. You’d better not do… .

19. Out of question , I’m afraid .

20. I’m afraid it’s not possible for you to do … .

Ⅲ. 语法学习

在这一单元,同学们要掌握句子结构中的表语功能,表语在句中作为谓语动词的一部分,用来说明主语的身份、性质、形状、状态、特征等。那么,什么可以作表语呢 ?

可以说系动词也是考试的热点,它用来表示状态;它跟形容词、名词、介词短语、动词-ing形式、过去分词等合用构成系表结构。常见的系动词有:become , look , sound , smell , taste , seem , appear , prove , turn , go , remain , stay , fall等。

【指点迷津】

at birth , at a birth , by birth , from birth , of…birth 与 give birth to

    birth 是中学英语教材中的一常用词,也常见于 birthday ( 生日 ) 、birthplace ( 出生地 ) 、birthrate ( 出生率 ) 和 birth control ( 计划生育 ) 等一些复合名词或短语之中。从字面看,这些复合词和短语意义容易理解,但下面一些含 birth 的介词短语和动词短语对于中学生来说就不那么容易理解了。现将 at birth , at a birth , by birth , from birth , of…birth 与 give birth to 的用法作一总结,供同学们参考。

    1 . at birth 意为 “ 出生时 ” ,相当于 when one was born 。例如:

    She weighed 8 pounds at birth . 她出生时重 8 磅。

    2 . at a birth 表示 “ 一胎生育…… ” 。例如:

    Cats sometimes have four or five young at a birth . 猫有时一胎产四、五只幼仔。

    3 . by birth 意为 “ 按血统,论出身 ” 。例如:

    He was a Swede by birth , a German by education . 他具有瑞典血统,受的是德国的教育。

    4 . from birth 意为 “ 一生下来就,从一出生下来 ” 。例如:

    She has been blind from ( her ) birth . 她从一生下来就双目失明。

    5 . of…birth 意为 “ 出身于……之家 ” 。例如:

    He was a man of noble birth . 他出身名门望放。

    6 . give birth to 意为 “ 生出,生产 ” 。例如:

    She gave birth to a second chile in January . 元月她又生了一个孩子。

    The Chinese nation has given birth to many national heroes and revolutionary leaders . 中华民族孕育出了许多民族英雄和革命领袖。

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

单元重点词汇点拨

1.patience容忍;耐心

This kind of work requires much patience .

She had no patience with her nosy neighbours .她不能容忍爱管闲事的邻居们。

〖点拨〗with patience = patiently耐心地。be out of patience with对……不能忍受。

另外,注意:be patient with sb对某人耐心。be patient of sth对某事耐心。

You should be more patient with these patients . 你应该对这些病人再耐心些。

2. laughter笑;笑声

I heard a roar of laughter from the next room . 我听到从隔壁房间传来哄笑声。

〖点拨〗burst into laughter = break out into laughter = burst out laughing 放声大笑。

注意由laugh构成的词组有:laugh a good / hearty laugh开心地笑。laugh a bitter laughter苦笑。have a good laugh over对……捧腹大笑。laugh at嘲笑。

He laughs longest who laughs last . = He who laughs last laughs longest . (谚语) 笑到最后的笑的最好。(别高兴的太早了。)

3. priceless无价的;非常贵的

The priceless collection of paintings is of great importance .

 〖点拨〗valuable , invaluable , priceless , valueless 和 worthless

从形式上看,invaluable , priceless , valueless 和 worthless 这四个形容词均带有否定意义的前缀 in- 或者后缀 -less ,因此,很容易认为它们都含否定意思,其实它们的含义有天壤 之别。现介绍如下:

1) invaluable  :该词中的前缀 -in 加重 valuable 的含义,所以 invaluable 的准确意思为“价值大得无法衡量的”“非常贵的”。如:

His advice has been invaluable to the success of the project . 他的意见对于项目取得成功起到了非常积极的作用。

2) priceless :该词中的后缀 -less 有抬高价码的意思,所以该词译作“价值高得难以确定的”“非常值钱的”“无价的”。如:

Only the rich can afford to buy these priceless paintings . 只有富人们才能买得起这些价值千金的绘画作品。

Works of  art , historic monuments and priceless historical records were ruthlessly destroyed . 艺术作品、历史遗址以及无法估价的史料均遭到残酷的破坏。

3) valueless  :此处的 -less 是一个含否定意义的后缀,故该词译作“不值钱的”“毫无价值的”。如:

These paintings have been ruined and are now valueless . 这些油画都已毁坏,所以现在就无价值了。

4) worthless :此词与 valueless 同义,但还有“不足取的”“丝毫没用的”之意,这时不能与 valueless 换用。如:

The jewels he sold us turned out to be completely worthless . 他卖给我们的珠宝原来毫无价值。

It was a worthless action .那次行动得不偿失。

单元词组思维运用

1. mean nothing to me对我来说毫无意义

2. reach my understanding终于使我弄明白了

3. reach out to把手伸向

4. reach out for伸手去那拿

5. take sb by the hand挽着某人的胳膊

6. bring sb into touch with使某人接触到

7. look back upon / over被……所感动

8. be patient with sb对某人耐心

9. demanding job费事的工作

10. owe thanks to sb for为……而感谢某人

11. start all over again重新开始

12. do an exam考试

13. be away on holiday外出度假

14. sound exciting听起来扣人心弦

15. burst into tears = burst out crying突然哭起来

16. vote for sb投票选某人

17. fall silent突然沉默下来

18. study away from home在离家很远的地方就读

单元难点疑点思路明晰

1 . …one or two people had told my mother that I was simple-minded .  有一两个人曾对我母亲说过我头脑简单。

〖明晰〗(1)one or two…后的动词用复数,one or two还可作主语。但a/an…or two可当作集合名词看待,而动词取单复数都可,由讲话者或作者主观上而定。如:

There are one or two things that  must be remembered . 有几件事必须记住。

Only one or two have been questioned about the case . 有关该案只有一两个人受到审问。

Only a word or two is/are needed here . 这儿只需几句话就行了。

(2)simple-minded 头脑简单的。minded作为形容词常构成复合词,含“有……头脑       的(思想的,观念的,意识强的)”。如:

small-minded气量小的,absent-minded心不在焉的,noble-minded思想高尚的,independent-minded有独立见解的,like-minded观点相同的,tradition - minded有传统观念的,lazy-minded 思想懒惰,sports-minded醉心体育运动的,safety-minded安全意识强的。

2 . A born teacher, she thought she would turn a deaf- blind  person  into  a    useful human being . 她是一位天生的教师, 她认为她能把一个又聋又瞎的人变成为一个有用的人。

〖明晰〗(1)a born teacher在本句作非限制性同位语,通常,非限制性同位语放在与它同位的那个词后面,并用逗号隔开。但是有时非限制性同位语可以提到句子前面,放在主语前面,这样做是为了给这个同位语以突出的位置,但更多的是因为主语是人称代词(人称代词太短),如果将较长的同位语放在后面会影响句子的平衡。又如:

An excellent speaker, he is never at a loss for words . 他是一位出色的演说家,从来不会想不出说什么好。

(2)born作形容词是“天生的,生来的”如:

a born fool 天生的傻子/a born  musician 天生的音乐家/a  recently  born idea 新近产生的想法/He is born rich . 他生来有钱。

3 . I reached out to Annie's hand .  我把手伸向安妮的手。

〖明晰〗reach out 伸出手(臂),可作不及物动词,也可作及物动词。如:

She reached out and took down a dictionary from the top shelf . 她伸手从最高一格书架上取下一本词典。

She reached out her hand and offered to shake his . 她伸了手去,想和他握手。

4 . She also brought me into touch with everything that could be felt ━━ soil, wood, silk . 她还使我接触到所有能感觉到的东西 ━━ 泥土、木板、丝绸。

〖明晰〗bring into 使进入某种状态。bring sb into touch ( contact,   association)     with…使接触到。如:

This brought us into touch with a wide circle of people . 这使我们有机会广泛接触各式各样的人。

5 . As I look back upon those years, I am struck by Annie's wisdom . 当我回顾那些岁月时,安妮的智慧使我惊叹不已。

〖明晰〗(1)look back“回顾,回忆”(=think about the past, recall the past), 后接on, upon, to, over介词短语。如:

Looking back upon our achievements, we are firmly  convinced  that  we shall be able to achieve even greater victories . 回顾我们所取得的成就,我们坚信将能取得更大的胜利。

(2)be struck by 被……所打动,被……所迷住。

6 . It took great imagination as well as patience for Annie to teach me  to speak . 安妮以极大的耐心和想象力教我说话。

〖明晰〗as well as 在此处是连词“和,又,也,除……外还”。 在表示“不但……而    且……”时则侧重强调前者,谓语与前者一致。而“not only…but also …”则侧    重于后者,谓语与后者一致。如:

He can speak French as well as English . 他不但会讲英语,而且还会讲法语。

She is not only hardworking but also clever . 她不但用功,而且聪明。

(He as well as we is(=Not only we but also he  is  ) eager  to  know  the results . 不仅我们,而且他也急于想知道结果。

7 . To Annie I one thanks for this priceless gift of speech . 我得感谢安妮给了我说话能力这个无价之宝。(=Annie taught  me  to  able  to  speak . This I consider to be the most valuable  gift  she  gave  me .  For  this I express my gratitude to her . )

〖明晰〗(1)owe thanks to sb for为……而感谢某人。to sb可提至句首以示强调。如:

I owe many thanks to Mr Wang for his help . 对王先生的帮助,我非常感谢。

(2)owe…to 应该把……归功于。如:

She owes her success to hard work . 她把成功归因于辛勤工作。

8. laugh, laughter,  laughing, laughable, smile

〖明晰〗(1)laugh v .  n . 笑;发笑;笑声。常作动词指由于高兴、快乐或看到某个有趣的景象而出声的笑,有时也表示嘲笑。如:

laugh at 因……而出声的笑;嘲笑/laugh in sb's  face 当面嘲笑某人/laugh one's head off放声大笑/burst into a  laugh 突然笑起来/laugh  a  hearty laugh放声大笑/have a good laugh  over  对……捧腹大笑/He  laughs best who laughs last . 谁笑在最后,谁笑得最好。

(2)laughter 笑;笑声。 其常见搭配有:burst  into  laughter 突然哈哈大笑       /with laughter or with tears不知是哭还是笑/I heard sounds of  laughter in the next room . 我听到隔壁屋里的笑声。

(3)laughing 带笑的;可笑的;一笑置之(指主语所表现出的外部特征)。  laughable. 有趣的;荒唐可笑的(指主语的所作所为令人可笑)。如:

a laughing girl一个笑容满面的姑娘/make laughable mistakes  把一个令人可笑的错误/It's no laughing matter . 这可不是开玩笑的。/He considered  our offer of $ 10000 for the painting laughable . 他认为我们对这幅画出价10万美金简直可笑。

(4)smile常指由于愉快,友好等发出无声的“微笑”。如:

She smiled her thanks . 她以微笑表示感谢。

She smiled a forced smile . 她强作笑颜。

9. priceless, price,  priced,   value,   invaluable, valueless,   precious,     worthless

〖明晰〗(1)price n . 价格,价钱;代价。priced有定价的。priceless(无比较级和最高级)无价的,贵重的(=invaluable)。如:

Up goes the price of the vinegar!醋价又上涨了。/the priced  steel有定价的钢材/make a priceless contribution to human beings  为人类作出宝贵的贡献。/Good health is priceless . 健康是无价之宝。

(2)value价,价值。估价,评价;珍重。valuable adj . 有价值的,贵重的。  invaluable无价的(指无法衡量的高价值,相当于priceless)。如:

This book is of more value than that  one .  这本书比那本书价钱贵。 /You   don't know the value of health .  你不知道健康的重要性。 /Our  Party  highly values the wisdom of the masses . 我党高度重视群众的智慧。

(3)valueless无价值的,没有用的(=worthless)。如:

a worthless, broken tool 没有用的工具。

10 . health, healthy, healthful

〖明晰〗 (1)health “健康;卫生”,常用于be in good/poor health 身体很(不)健康。 healthy “健康的,健壮的”(having health),当healthy  引伸为“有益于健康”的时候可与healthful换用。healthful “有益于健康的”( giving health)。如:

Fresh air and exercise are good for the health . 新鲜空气和运动有益于健康。

Swimming is a healthful exercise . 游泳是一项有益于健康的运动。

(SEFC B1 L58)Every person needs water and a diet of healthy/healthful food . 人人需要饮水和食用有益于健康的食品。

11 . human, human being, human race, mankind, man, person, people, soul,creature

〖明晰〗(1)human adj . 人的,有关人的;人类的;有人性的。该词还可作名词表“人”,常用该词构成a human being一个人, human beings人们, human race 人类,在将人与动物、

神仙、鬼等比较时常用human, 其复数形式为humans。如:

Are robots as clever as humans?机器人跟人一样聪明吗?

(3)person 可以指man, woman或child,其复数形式常是people,用persons 则强调数       量的概念。“一个人”是a person, 不能说 a  people, “两个人”可说two       persons/people。

(4)man的单数形式并其前不加冠词可表“人类”,相当于mankind。如:

Man's knowledge of things constantly develops . 人类的认识总是不断发展的。

(5)people 泛诣“人们”,the people 人民,人们,a people, peoples民族。如:

The Chinese are a hardworking people . 中华民族是勤劳的民族。

serve the people为人民服务,many people at the meeting .  出席会议的人很多。the English-speaking peoples 使用英语的各民族。

(6)soul,  creature 在书面语中常表“人”,常与数词连用并带感情色彩。soul还表“首脑,核心人物”如;

Won't someone help that poor pretty creature?难道没人帮助那可怜但美丽的人吗?

The ship was lost off the coast with all souls . 这条船在沿海失事,船上的人全部遇难。

an important soul in the strike 罢工中的核心人物。

【妙文赏析】

一位澳大利亚姑娘和一个美国小伙结婚后,在美国度蜜月。有一天新郎新娘去赴宴,新郎觉得没有合适的服装可穿,恰巧前不久新娘在他的生日前送了他一套服装,新娘于是不假思索地说:" Why not wear your birthday suit ?  " 不料这句话却使新郎全家大惊失色,面面相觑。

原来,这位来自澳大利亚的、生来就讲英语的新娘不知道 birthday suit在美国英语中不当" 生日服装 " 讲,而是" 赤身露体 " 的婉语,所以闹出了笑话。如:

The little boys were swimming in their birthday suit . ( 那些男孩子正光着身子在游泳。)

【思维体操】

容易望文生义的英语词组(1)

下面的词组很容易翻译错,请你注意其正确的汉语:

    1. absent-minded心不在焉  2 . run across sb .偶然遇见某人 3 . go ahead      随便 ( 用 ) 吧,开始吧  4 . on the air  在广播 5 . let alone  更不用说 6 . as well  也,一起  7 . as ( so ) long as只要 8 . so far  到目前为止 9 . be sound asleep睡得很熟 10 . pass away            去世 11 . go to bed上床睡觉  12 . not a little不止一点 13 . break down ( 机器 ) 出故障  14 . bring up把某人养大15 . bring about引起,造成 16 . build up增强 ( 体质 ) 发展 ( 事业 )      17 . but for  要不是 18 . call up sb .给某人打电话 19 . carry out执行,开展  20 . come true            ( 梦想 ) 成真,实现  21 . in common  共同地  22 . the other day过去某一天  23 . keep a diary 写日记 24 . drop in顺便拜访 ( 某人或某地 ) 25 . at ease 26 . enjoy oneself过得快乐    27 . for good永远28 . far from毫不,远远不是 29 . feel like doing sth . 想要做某事 30 . by force通过武力

三、智能显示

【心中有数】

单元语法发散思维

浅析“变成”类系动词及搭配

常见的“变成”类系动词有 become , get , come , go , grow , fall , turn , run 等,都表示从一种状态到另一种状态。尽管意思差不多,但搭配有差别,若不注意,运用时会出错。我们要注意以下几个方面。

1 . 形容词作表语。

go 和 come 是一对相反的词。“go + adj . ”表示令人不快的事情,而“come + adj . ”则表示好的事情。例如:

In hot weather , meat goes bad .

Things will come right in the end .

go 与 come 前面的主语一般是物。例如:

(误)She goes famous .

(正)She becomes(gets)famous .

表语为mad , crazy(古怪的),blind , lame 或表示颜色的词,go 前面的主语可以是人。例如:

He went mad .

Hearing this , she went red .

run 后面接 short , dry , low , deep 等词,主语多为能流动,能消耗掉的东西。例如:

Their money was running short .

Still waters run deep .

但 wild 作表语,主语可以是人。例如:

Don't let the children run wild . 不要让孩子们毫无约束(变野了)。

grow 与 run 相对,接表示人或物特征的静态形容词,也接表示天气的形容词,侧重于“逐渐变成”。例如:

The girl grew thinner and thinner .

Soon the sky grew light .

turn 多接表示颜色的形容词,也接表示天气的形容词,它侧重变得与以前完全不同。

The man turned blue with fear . 因害怕,这个人变得忧郁起来。

The weather suddenly turned much colder .

fall 接 asleep , silent 等静态形容词和表示疾病的形容词,但不能接形容词比较级。例如:

She fell ill from cold .

(误)She fell worse .

(正)She got worse .

fall short(没中),fall apart(散开),fall flat(没效果),可作成语记住。

“get + adj . ”是口语,用得广泛,get能替代become , become 较正式,get 与 become 前面的主语既可以是人又可以是物。例如:

He became(got)angry .

His coat has become(got)badly torn .

get较多地与形容词比较级连用。例如:

The days are getting longer and longer .

注意:become 一般不用于“将来成为”的意思。例如:

(误)I hope you will become well .

(正)I hope you will get well .

2 . become , turn , get , go , fall 能用名词作表语,其它的则不能。例如:

His dream has become(got)a reality .

He has turned scientist .

He has gone socialist .

 He fell(a)victim to cancer . (他患了癌症。)

注意:go , turn 后面的名词通常不带冠词。

3 . become , get , grow 能接过去分词,并且 come 和 go 多接有否定前缀的过去分词。

“get + 过去分词”表示一次行为;“become + 过去分词”表示事情发生的最后结果。

The string comes untied .

His report went unnoticed .

The fence gets white――washed every year .

She became engaged as a typist .

4 . get , go , come 能接现在分词,不过它们已失去“成为”的意思。例如:

They went in and got chatting together . (开始)

We often go swimming . (去)

He came running in . (来)

5 . come , grow , get 能接不定式,这种结构表示变化过程,come 表示“最终变得”,get 表示“由不……变得”,grow 表示“渐渐变得”。例如:

I've really come to love this place .

Mary's growing to be more and more like her mother .

You'll soon get to like it .

这种结构不能用于带有一段时间的完成时态。例如:

 (误)They have got to know each other for years .

 (正)They have known each other for years .

6 . 它们都可以接介词短语,固定搭配需要一个一个地记。例如:

They went(grow)out of fashion . (它们变得不时髦了。)

They ran out of money .

The problem will come under discussion .

They fell behind the others .

What has become of the girl .

It's getting near tea-time .

【动脑动手】

单元能力立体检测

试题详情

声 音 的 特 性

重点难点:

声音的特性

乐音的音调跟发声体的振动频率有关

响度跟发声体的振幅有关

考点:

1.乐音的三要素。

2.现代技术中与声有关的应用。

名师精讲:

1.         了解声音的特性――乐音的三要素:音调、响度、音色。

2.         知道乐音的音调跟发声体的振动频率有关;响度跟发声体的振幅有关;不同发声体发出乐音的音色不同。

3.         通过做“音调与频率有关实验”和“响度与振幅有关实验”进一步了解和学习物理研究问题的方法。

4.         体会现实世界物体的发声是丰富多彩的。

中考典型:

1.乐音的三个要素是指:音调、音色和--------------------

(北京市2004年中考物理试卷)

2.漫步花丛,我们听到蜜蜂的嗡嗡声是由蜜蜂翅膀的--------------------产生的。

(北京市海淀区2004年中考物理试卷)

3.老师用同样的力吹一根吸管,并将它不断剪短,他在研究声音的(   )

A、响度与吸管长短有关系      B、音调与吸管材料有关系

C、音调与吸管长短有关系      D、音色与吸管材料有关系

(上海市2004年中考物理试卷)

4.男低音独唱时由女高音轻声伴唱,则男低音比女高音

(   )

A、音调低,响度大            B、音调低,响度小

C、音调高,响度大            D、音调高,响度小

(天津市2004年中考物理试卷)

5.声音从空气传到水中,它的传播速度将(   )

A、变大                      B、变小

C、不变                      D、不能确定

(广东省2004年中考物理试卷)

6.音乐会上的人们听优美的小提琴协奏曲,小提琴声是由琴弦的--------------------产生的。并通过--------------------这种介质传到人耳边的。

(大连市2004年中考物理试卷)

7.大量事实表明,声音是由物体的---------------------产生的。通常我们听到的声音是通过--------------------传播的。

(广西南宁市2004年中考物理试卷)

8.几位同学在室外聊天,市内同学听声音可以分辨出每句话是谁说的,这主要是因为各人的

A、音色不同                  B、音调不同

C、频率不同                  D、响度不同

 

试题详情


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