文件 high2 unit15.doc
标题 A famous detective（著名侦探）
Ⅰ. 四会单词和词组：have a seat , quarrel , long before , dare , upon , fasten , gun , again and again , blow (n .) , hall
三会单词和词组：personal , affair , relative , delay , pillow , nail , chest , pay … a visit , furniture , armchair , pet , doubt , silence , in silence , living room , strike , scream , snake , tiny , nephew , niece , connect to
1. I’m afraid I have to go now .
2. It is time sb + 动词的过去式
3. I hope you have a good journey back to …
4. It was nice to meet you .
5. Please remember me to sb请代我向……问好
6. I called to tell you that …
7. I’d like you to meet …
8. Thanks again for calling .
9. It is very kind of you to do …
10. I have to see to . 我必须处理 。
另外要学习同源宾语的用法，如：( page 2 Unit 13 )
Einstein ( lived ) the rest of his ( life ) quietly in the USA . ( 爱因斯坦在美国静静地度过了余生 ) 。其中宾语 life 与 live 是同源的名词，即同源宾语 ( cognate object ) 。这是中学英语课本中十分常见的语法现象，这种宾语用在某些不及物动词之后，并往往有定语修饰，现举例如下：
1 . My grandmother lives a happy life in the countryside . 我的祖母在乡下过着幸福的生活。
2 . Premier Zhou Enlai fought a hard fight against “Gang of Four” . 周恩来总理与“四人帮”进行了一场艰苦的斗争。
3 . He breathed his last breath last night . 昨天夜里他咽了最后一口气。
4 . He laughed a hearty laugh at the good news . 听到好消息后他开心地笑了。
5 . Chris will sing us a pop song . 克莉斯将给我们唱首流行歌曲。
6 . Her son died a hero's death in the war . 她儿子在战争中英勇牺牲了。
7 . She sleeps a sweet sleep only on Sundays . 只有在周日她才能甜美地睡一觉。
8 . I dreamed a pleasant dream last night . 昨天夜里我做了个愉快的梦。
9 . My father signed a deep sign . 我父亲深深地叹了一口气。
10 . My mother smiled a happy smile when I passed the entrance examination .当我通过了入学考试时，我妈妈幸福地笑了。
What delayed you so long yesterday ?
The train was delayed one hour by the accident .
〖点拨〗without delay毫无耽搁地，立即。after a delay of two hours延迟两个小时以后。
注意：delay + -ing推迟干……。如：I’ll delay answering his letter until I feel like writing .
另外，put off + ing推迟干……。如：They put off holding the sports meet .
He had a quarrel with his wife about / over the housework .
〖点拨〗quarrel with sb about / over sth因为……向某人争吵
dare 和 need 这两个词的用法有它们独特的地方。词性有两种而且不同的词性决定了它们不同的用法。对中学生来讲掌握它们的用法有一定的难度，无论教师从理论上如何解释，但同学们在具体运用中都会出现浮光掠影，若明若暗，零乱残缺，张冠李戴的现象。这两个词难就难在对词性的判断，它们可以作为情态动词用(其后不带 to)，又可以作为行为动词用(后面要带 to)。为了便于区分其词性和掌握用法，同学们可以采用下面的口诀帮助记忆。
〖点拨〗口诀：“dare , need 真奇怪，既行为(指行为动词)又情态(指情态动词)，是行为，把 to 带(指其后用不定式)，是情态，把 to “卖”(指其后去掉 to，只用动词原形)。若 need (= want ，require) 的主语是某物，愿与 -ing (= to be done)结姻缘。”
1） Something is wrong with my watch . It needs ____ .
A . to repair B . repairing C . repaired D . being repaired
2） I ____ to ask the teachers for advice in the office .
A . dare not B . not dare C . dare don't D . don't dare
3） He ____ come to school to give us a lecture on how to learn English .
A . need B . need to C . needs D . to need
4） She ____ do so .
A . won't dare B . dare not C . will dare to D . not dare
5） We ____ to think it over before we take action .
A . needing B . needs C . need D . needed
［答案与简析］1 ― 5 BDABC 。第一题选B；某物作 need 的主语，后面应用动名词的主动形式表被动含义。第二题选D；dare 用作行为动词，其否定形式应为“助动词+ not dare to do sth . ”第三题选A；need 用作情态动词，其后跟动词原形。第四题选B；dare 用作情态动词，直接加 not 表示否定。第五题选C；need 用作行为动词，主语是人称代词，其后应该是 need to do sth .
4. furniture (总称) 家具
A lot of furniture will be bought for you .
〖点拨〗furniture是不可数名词，表示件数要用量词piece / set 。如：three pieces of furniture三件家具。
I have no doubt that he will pass this examination .
〖点拨〗beyond doubt = out of doubt毫无疑问。
用于肯定句时用doubt if / whether …。用于否定句时用doubt that 。
1. have a seat = take a seat坐下
Entering the hall , he had a seat in the corner .
Have a seat and make yourself at home .
注意：have a seat用于直接引语。
2. long before = long time ago很久以前
She said that she had known your name long before .
注意：It wasn’t long before是一个常用句型，意为“不久”。before long不久以后
3. pay … a visit = pay a visit to对……进行参观；对……进行访问
That basketball team will pay Europe a visit before long .
注意：表示状态的“在……参观；在……访问”用on a visit to 。如：These singers have been on a visit to Africa for a month .
4. in silence静静地 = silently
She alone sat under the tree in silence , looking straight forward .
5. again and again = over and over反复地；再三地
The student made the spelling mistakes again and again .
6. connect to连接；相连
Please connect the two speakers to the amplifier .
注意：connect with与……相连接；与……有联系。如：She is connected with the Smiths .
7. see to处理；负责
I have some personal affairs that I have to see to .
Will you see to turning off the lights ?
8. have a good / pleasant journey一路顺风；一路平安
I hope you have a good journey back to Guangzhou .
9. fasten … to… 把……栓在……；把……系在……
He fastened a rope to a post .
10. do repairs维修；修理
A few building repairs were done a week ago .
We must do a lot of repairs on the house before we move in .
11. no matter不要紧；没关系
It’s no matter whether he will come or not .
注意：在It doesn’t matter 中，matter是动词。
12. from that moment on从那一刻起
13. a long wait等很久
There will be a long wait before the next train comes .
Word came at last after a long wait .
14. in the dark在黑暗中
It was hard to find your pen in the dark .
15. be supposed to do应该干……
We are supposed to gather at the school gate at 7:30 .
16. a length of一段
She bought two lengths of silk .
What is the length of the report ?
17. send for派人去请；派人去取
I’ll send for the magazine tomorrow .
If bitten by a snake , you should send for help and don’t walk .
18. fire back开火还击
No one was allowed to fire back unless the order was given .
1. I've got some personal affairs that I have to see to . 我有些私事非处理不可。
〖明晰〗1) affair, business 作“事物”讲时，这两个词的意义很相近，常可通用。
Mind your own affairs (business) . 少管闲事。
Each Ministry of Foreign Affairs lodged a protest with the other . 双方外交部向对方外交部提出抗议。
Business before pleasure . 先办正事，再谈娱乐。
Your shoes need seeing to . 你的鞋得修补了。
You ought to have your eyes seen to by a doctor . 你应该请医生治眼睛。
2. I dare say my uncle will . I have no other relatives . 我认为我叔父会得到这笔钱，我没有其他的亲戚。
〖明晰〗1)I dare say 的意思并不是“I dare to say”，而是和“也许”几乎同义或者等于“我想”。
I dare say you're right . 我看大概是对的。
I dare say it will come later . 我想它以后会来的。
Dare you ask him ? 你敢问他吗？
I dare not go there . 我不敢去那儿。
That is as much as I dare spend . 我只敢花那么多的钱。
I don't know how he dares to appear in public .
I've never dared go back to look . 我从来不敢回去看一下。
3. I think it will be necessary for me to pay you a visit and see where you live . 我想有必要去拜访你，看看你住在什么地方。
Is it necessary for us to meet/necessary that we meet ?我们有见面吗？
2)pay a visit (to someone or something)/pay (someone or something) a visit表示“（短时间）访问（某人，某物）”；“参观（某物）”。例如：
Shall we pay your brother a visit this afternoon ?
4. Do you see that hole high up in the wall, about 18 cm by 9 ? 你看到墙壁上方那个大约18厘米宽，9厘米高的洞没有？
〖明晰〗1)句中的high用作副词，指的是高矮；而highly表示很高的程度（意思往往是 very much）。
The plane flew high above . 飞机高高地在上空飞。
An eagle circled high overhead . 一只鹰在头上高高盘旋。
The goods on display are all very highly priced . 这些展销货物标价都很高。
He speaks very highly of the boy's behaviour . 他十分赞赏孩子的行为。
2)about 18 cm by 9用作后置定语，修饰that hole，介词by表示面积、 体积的长、宽、高。例如：
The room measures fifteen feet by twenty feet . 房间宽十五英尺，长二十英尽。
5. Dr Watson and I will spend the night locked in your room . 我和华生就锁在你的房间里过夜。
You and I can do it . 我和你都能做这件事。
You, Tom and I are to leave tonight . 我、你和汤姆今晚得离开。
Just then the old man entered (supported) by his son . 就在这时， 老人由儿子扶着走了进来。
He turned away (disappointed) . 他失望地走开了。
She went home (exhausted) . 她回到家时已精疲力尽了。
6. Immediately Holmes jumped up from the bed and struck a match . 福尔摩斯立即从床上跳起，划燃一根火柴。
〖明晰〗The young lady rushed into the room immediately she heard the noise . 那位年轻的女士一听到响声就冲入房间。
第一例句中的 immediately 用作副词， 表示“立刻， 立即”； 第二例句中的immediately用作副词，表示“一……就……”，类似的说法还有instantly, directly, the moment, the minute, the instant等。例如：
I'll go there directly (=as soon as) I have finished my breakfast .
The moment I saw you I knew you were angry with me .
A teacher asked his students some challenging ( 难以回答的，具挑战性的 ) questions to find the most intelligent ( 聪明的 ) students . His first question was:
“ What can you get with one penny that can be used by the whole class for about an hour ? ”
After a while an answer came from a clever girl .
“ I can get a candle . The whole class can be lit up ( 照亮 ) with its light . ”
The teacher praised the student for her smart answer before asking the second question .
“ What can you get with one dollar which can be used by the whole class for a whole year ? ”
An answer came from monitor of the class .
“ If we put a calendar ( 挂历 ) on the wall , we can use it for a whole year . ”
After warm applause of admiration ( 羡慕的掌声 ) , the teacher presented his third question:
“ What can you get without paying anything that can be used for your whole life ? ”
This time there was no immediate response ( 答复 ) .
“ You get your name free of charge and you use it all your life . ” Again the clever girl won applause from the whole class .
Now came the teacher's last question:
“ What can you get which can be used after your death ? ”
Immediately he saw his favorite student open her mouth .
“ A coffin ( 棺材 ) , Sir . ”
It was a cold evening . Old Hill was in the ward（牢房）a____(1) . He was put there for stealing some v____(2) jewellery in a shop . He knew he would be in p____(3) for more than five years . C____(4) was coming and the other prisoners（囚犯）were set free . He couldn't talk with n____(5) . The policemen who guarded（看守）him were b____( 6) buying the presents for their families and friends . He lay down on bed, and he could not fall a____(7) though he often felt t____(8) when he tried to earn some money for his family .
Suddenly the old man h____(9) some noise . He sat up at once. The door o____(10) and in came two policeman. They put a young man into the ward, l____(11) the door and left. Old Hill looked at the young man up and down, who w____(12) the nicest clothes. “He must be from a r____(13) family, ”Old Hill said to himself. “But for what has he been b____(14) here too ?”
“What happened to you, young man ?”he asked .
“I was out of l____(15) this morning,”said the young man.“I had a puncture（扎穿）.”
“It's an o____(16) accident, I think. Did you drive over a n____(17)?”
“No, a wine bottle.”
“You were too c____(18) ! But you haven't broken any l____(19) , in my opinion.”
“But the drunkard（醉汉）who was l____(20) in the street had it hidden in his coat !”
Old Hill由于偷盗贵重的珠宝被关进了监狱。圣诞节快到了，牢房里只剩他一个人，他感到很寂寞。突然两个警察把一个年轻人关进了牢房。他打量那个衣着讲究的年轻人，可以判断他出身一个富有家庭。他问年轻人是为何被关进监狱。年轻人说他的汽车轮胎被酒瓶扎破了。Old Hill认为那也不犯法。最后年轻人拐弯抹角地说，那个酒瓶是在一个躺在街道上的醉汉的大衣里的（意思是他从醉汉身上碾了过去）。
1. 从后面所讲的别的囚犯都释放来看，Old Hill一个人在牢房里，要填alone。2. 从上下文可以得知，Old Hill由于偷盗贵重的珠宝才被关进监狱的。因此，应填valuable。3. Old Hill偷盗了贵重的珠宝，就得在监狱里呆五年多。应当填prison。4. 从监狱的看守买礼物来看，是圣诞节到了。故应填Christmas。5. 另外几个囚犯被释放了，牢房里只剩Old Hill一个人，他也就无法和任何人说话了。应填nobody。6. 那些警察在圣诞节以前，忙于给亲友买礼物。应当填busy。7. Old Hill感到寂寞，躺在床上也睡不着，要填asleep。8. Old Hill在挣钱养家的时候，自然很劳累。所以，应当填tired。9. 牢房有别的人，因此只要有动静，Old Hill就会听到的。应填heard。10. 门开了人才会进来。故应填opened。11. 警察在关进囚犯之后，先锁了门才能离开。要填locked。12. 那个年轻人自然是穿着好衣服。应填wore。13. 年轻人穿着讲究，当然是出身有钱人家庭。要直rich。14. Old Hill不知道那个年轻人为何也被带到监狱来。故应填brought。15. 年轻人认为他不走运，才出了那件事。应当填luck。16. 汽车轮胎扎破并不是大事故，而是一件很普通的事情。因此，应当填写ordinary。 17. 一般情况下，汽车轮胎扎上钉子，才会被扎破的。要填nail。18. 年轻人说他从一个酒瓶上驶过去，才把轮胎扎破了。Old Hill 就说他太粗心了。要填careless。19. Old Hill认为，年轻人从洒瓶上驶过去也不犯法，故应填law。20. 从年轻人的回答可以看出，那个醉汉是躺在街道上的。实际上， 他的汽车从醉汉身上驶过去了。这也是他被带到牢房的原因。要填lying。
Her job was to take care of the (wounded) soldier .
We are doing our (written) exercises .
The machine (run by the old worker) is made in Shanghai .
The houses (built in the 19th century) has been on fire for half and hour. （动作完成）
the workers demand (increased) wage . （尚未完成）
3. 及物动词的过去分词还可用来表示被动， 但也有少数动词（如fall, escape, boil等）的过去分词作定语时，只表示完成。例如：
the man spoken to（别人与之讲话的那个人）
(Heated), the metal expands .这种金属加热后会膨胀。
(Asked) why he did it, he said it was his duty .
(Born in the village), he knows a lot of people there .
(United), we stand; (divided), we fail .团结则存，分裂则亡。
(Given more time), I can do it better .
Although (exhausted) after a long journey, he continued to work .
The professor stood there (surrounded) by many students .
1.【误】Seen from the mountain, we found the building is very small .
【正】Seen from the mountain, the building is very small .
2.【误】Written carelessly, he made a serious mistake in the letter .
【正】Written carelessly, the letter had a serious mistake .
1. The programs ____ (put) on yesterday evening were really wonderful.
2. ____ (send) to the hospital immediately, the wounded soldier was saved.
3. You'd better not get the plastic bags and boxes ____ (burn), for it will give off some harmful gas and pollutants into the air.
4. The firefighters are trying their best to rescue all the people ____ (trap) in the fire.
5. ____ (encourage) by the teacher's words, the boy was determined to work harder and make greater progress.
6. The little girl was very ____ (frighten) at a frightening voice.
7. They found the house ____ (break) into and rang up the police at once.
8. The bridge that was ____ (build) twenty years ago needs repairing.
9. If ____ (give) more time, we could do it better.
10. ____ (excite) at the good news, he could not go to sleep.
11. The manager had every room ____ (examine) carefully.
12. Unless ____ (invite), I won't go to the ball tomorrow.
13. ____ (destroy) in the earthquake, the equipment doesn't work.
14. ____ (absorb) in the research work, he had no time to make any trip.
15. In the paper is a carefully ____ (decide) policy.
16. The first film ____ (direct) by her was very popular with the public.
17. The students have cleared away the ____ (fall) leaves.
18. I saw a lot of banners ____ (hang) from public buildings.
文件 high3 unit10.doc
标题 The Trick (计谋)
Prediction , Conjecture and Belief (预见、猜测和相信)
● Idiomatic Sentences 功能套语
1. I guess she's gone to visit some friends in another town . 我想她是去另一个城镇拜访朋友去了。
2. That's possible , but we can't be sure . 那有可能，但我们不能确定。
3. Something may have happened to her . 很可能他发生了啥事。
4. She might have + done … 她有可能已经……
She might have left for holiday . 她有可能去度假了。
5. She must have + done …
She must have gone to the public library . 她一定是去公共图书馆了。
6. It seems that … 好象……
It seems that she has known the examination marks . 好象她已经知道了考试的结果。
7. It looks as if … 好象……
It looks as if the boy is anxious about his sick father . 那个男孩好象很为有病的父亲担忧。
8. Obviously she's gone somewhere to stay . 很显然她去别的某个地放了。
9. I 'm sure … 我可以肯定地是……
I 'm sure that you will be given a warm welcome . 你放心，你肯定能受到热烈的欢迎的。
10. In actual fact , I think you're right . 实际上， 我倒认为你是对的。
11. I can't guess how much it costs . 我猜不出要多少钱。
12. Can you guess his age ?
13. He must come from the northwest . 他一定是来自西北。
14. You must be joking ! 你一定是在开玩笑 ！
15. They must have arrived by plane . 他们一定是乘飞机来的。
16. I seem to have caught a cold . 我似乎得了感冒。
17. It seems that he's not in at the moment . 他现在好象不在家里。
18. There seems no need to grow now . 现在似乎没有必要去了。
19. It appears to be endless . 似乎没有止境。
20. You appear to have travelled quite a lot . 你似乎去过了不少的地方。
21. It appeared that she had a taste for music . 她似乎很喜欢音乐。
22. I believe it to be true . 我相信这是真的。
23. I don't believe that it matters too much . 我认为这事关系不大。
24. There seems to be a good film tonight .
25. It seems that the petrol prices will increase this summer .
26. He can't have saved much money . 他不可能节约了很多的钱。
27. It's obvious that we are running out of our food . 很显然我们的食物快用完了。
● Model Dialogues 交际示范
A：Excuse me , Where are you from ?
B：Can you guess ?
A：You must come from Australia , don't you ?
B：Yes , I do . How did you guess ?
A：The way you speak ! Which part of Australia are you from ?
B：Plumtree . That's a small village near Sydney .
A：Hello . May I speak to Mr Wu ?
B：Sorry he has gone to Guangzhou .
A：I saw him this morning . When did he leave ?
B：Twelve o'clock . He must have arrived by now .
A：Oh , what a pity ! When will he be back ?
B：It seems that he won't be back until next Wednesday .
A：Ok , thanks . Bye !
1. ( Lesson 37 ) It's not like her to have missed two days of classes .
〖剖析〗It's (just) like sb to do sth “某人（恰恰）就是这个样子”，表示表扬或者不满，其否定式则表示怀疑。如：
It's like him to leave the work to others . 他就是把工作推给别人的人。
It was like him to fail us at the last minute . 他就是这样，在关键时刻让我们失望。
It's just like her to think of others before thinking of herself . 她恰恰就是先人后己的人。
It isn't like him to have said anything like that .他可不是说出那种话的人。
It isn't like her to have spent so much money . 花掉这么多钱，我看这不像她做得出来的事。
◆ 下面两句不一样：It's not like her to have missed two days of classes .
It's not like her to miss two days of classes .
◆ to have missed 是非谓语动词的完成式，表示动作早已完成。是高考测试中的重要知识点。又如：
（1）It isn't like him to have told a lie to the manager . 他不是给经理撒谎的那种人吧。
（2）I'm glad to have seen your headmaster yesterday .
（3）He is said to have written a novel about the Long March . 据说他写了一本关于长征的小说。
（4）They thought it a pity not to have invited them . 他们认为没有邀请他们是令人遗憾的。
（5）I regretted to have missed such good chances . 我遗憾的是错过了这些好机会。
2. （Lesson 39 ）The moment he entered the room , Bill fixed the chain across the door . 比尔一进入房间，就用链条把卧室的门扣上。
〖剖析〗这是复合句，其句型为：the + 时间名词 + 时间从句 + 主句。the moment … 表示“一……就”，相当于 as soon as 。注意从句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。如：
We started the moment we got your telegram .
The moment I heard your voice I knew that you were very angry with me .
The moment he comes , let me know .
The moment you set foot on Chinese soil you will see what great changes have taken place in the past 5o years .
◇ the + 瞬间名词 (instant , moment , minute , etc . ) ，意为“一……就……”。例如：
The instant the result came out she told us about it . 结果一出来，她就告诉了我们。
The machine starts the moment the button is pressed . 一按电钮，机器就开动了。
◇ the + 季节名词 (spring , summer , autumn , winter)。例如：
He came back the autumn his sister got married . 他妹妹结婚的那年秋天他回来了。
Jack went to Beijing the winter his mother was ill . 他妈妈有病的那年冬天杰克去了北京。
◇ the + 序数词 + time。例如：
The second time we met , he replied to a lot of questions . 我们第二次见面时，他回答了不少问题。
He came to see my mother the first time he came to London . 他第一次到伦敦就来看我母亲。
◇ 不定代词 each , every , any + time。例如：
Each time he came to Paris he would visit the museum . 他每次到巴黎都要去参观那个博物馆。
You're welcome to come back any time you want to . 你什么时候回来，我们都欢迎你。
◇ the + day , week , year……。例如：
He called on me the day he arrived . 他到的那天来看我了。
Tom didn't go to school the week the teacher was ill . 老师生病的那个星期，汤姆没去上学。
I didn't see how he could act the way he did . 我不懂他怎么能那样做。
He doesn't study hard the way his elder brother does . 他不像他哥哥那样努力地学习。
直接引语变间接引语的 10 个注意点
本单元的语法要求是复习间接引语（Indirect Speech）和直接引语( Direct Speech )。同学们要通过本单元系统掌握表示请求或者命令的直接引语（祈使句）变成间接引语的方法。掌握当直接引语是一个陈述句时，在变成间接引语时应把这个陈述句变成由连词 that 引导的宾语从句，并根据意思改变人称和时态以及时间或者地点状语。下面是必须灵活驾驭的知识要点：
〖注意点 1 〗直接引语到间接引语的时态有变化。如直接引语的现在完成时变成间接引语的过去完成时等。时态变化中应注意：
Our teacher said , “The earth moves around the sun . ” →
Our teacher said that the earth moves around the sun .
The boy said to his parents , “I had finished my homework before supper .”→
The boy told his parents that he had finished his homework before supper .
“We wish we didn't have to take exams . ”said the children . →
The children said that they wished they didn't have to take exams .
〖注意点 2 〗 指示代词、人称代词、时间状语、地点状语及方向性动词也有变化。如直接引语中的 now变为 间接引语的 then 等。
注意如果转述发生在当地、当天的事，直接引语中的 come , here , today , this morning , yesterday , tomorrow 等不必改变。
He said , “I want this . ”→ He said that he wanted that .
He said , “I arrived yesterday morning .” → He said he had arrived the morning before .
He said , “I'll come here this evening .”→ He said he would come here this evening .
〖注意点 3 〗直接引语是陈述句，间接引语为 that 引导的宾语从句。
She said to me , “I'm studying Japanese these days .”→
She told me (that)she was studying Japanese those days .
〖注意点 4 〗 直接引语是一般疑问句时，间接引语为whether / if 引导的宾语从句。
Mr Howe asked , “Are you preparing for it ?”→
Mr Howe asked whether we were preparing for it .
如果是表示建议时可用 suggest / advise 来完成。
“Shall we meet at the theatre ?”he said . → He suggested that we should meet at the theatre . = He suggested meeting at the theatre .
〖注意点 5 〗 直接引语是特殊疑问句时，间接引语为连接代词（副词）引导的宾语从句。
He asked , “Which one do you like best ?”→ He asked which one you liked best .
〖注意点 6 〗 直接引语是反意疑问句时，间接引语为 whether / if 引导的宾语从句。
He asked , “You have succeeded , haven't you ?”→ He asked us if we had succeeded .
“Shut the door , will you ?”→ He told / asked me to shut the door .
〖注意点 7 〗 直接引语是祈使句时应把间接引语的句式改为 ask , tell , order 等+ 宾语 + 不定式。间接引语有时可以用 that 引导的宾语从句。以 let 开头的祈使句变间接引语时要选用 suggest + ing ， suggest + that 从句，ask sb to do , advise sb to 。
The Party secretary said , “Let's do our best to win still greater victory .”→ The Party secretary advised that we should do our best to win still greater victory .
〖注意点 8 〗直接引语是感叹句时可以用 what / how 引导。间接引语是祝愿时用 wish 。
“ How fast he runs ! ”he said . → He said how fast he ran . = He said that he ran very fast .
He said ,“Happy new year ! ”→ He wished me a happy new year .
〖注意点 9 〗 直接引语中有多种句式时，间接引语按照各自的句式转换。
“I can hardly hear the radio .”he said .“Could you turn it up ?”→
He said he could hardly hear the radio and asked me to turn it up .
〖注意点 10 〗如果直接引语中后一句说明前一句的原因时，可以用 as 来替代第二句的引导词。
“You'd better wear a coat . It's very cold outside .”he said .→
He advised me to wear a coat as it was very cold outside .
1. pause 作名词或者动词是“ 中止，暂停”
He often paused in his speech . 他讲演时常常停下来。
He made a short pause and then went on reading . 他停顿了一下，然后接着读下去。
(1) 辨析 pause 和 stop
pause 是短暂的中断或停止。stop 是突然、断然的终止。
He stopped talking with his friends . 他停止与朋友交谈。（stop + ing 停止干）
He stopped to talk with his friends . 他停下来与朋友交谈。（stop + to do 停下来干）
The foreign guests paused to look round the park . 那些外宾在公园里停下来看看四周。
He began to speak but suddenly stopped .
The speaker paused for breath .
Jane paused to look into a shoe window . 简停下脚步，看一看橱窗。
（2）词组：at pause 中止，停顿。make a pause 停顿一下。without a pause 没有休息。pause on / upon 在……停顿一下。
2. aloud 大声地；出声地
She cried aloud for help . 她大声呼救。
Read the text aloud please . 请朗读课文。
〖测试要点〗辨析 aloud , loud , loudly
aloud 强调发出的声音虽然不一定很大，但能听得见，不是窃窃私语。aloud 没有比较级。
He read the letter aloud .
He reads the story aloud to his young son . 他朗读那篇故事给他小儿子听。
He laughed loudly . 他大笑起来。
think （out） aloud 自言自语
She has a good pronunciation when she reads aloud .
loud 作副词 = loudly ,“响亮地，大声地，高声地” 但强调发出的音量大，传得远的声音，一般多用于动词 speak , talk , laugh , read 等的后面。loud 还作形容词，有比较级和最高及。
In order to be heard , the teacher speaks loud and clear .
We shouted as loud / loudly as we could . = We shouted at the top of our voices / lungs .
Speak louder , please . I can't hear you .
You are talking too loud .
He told us that in a loud voice .
All of us dislike loud music .
Will you please speak a little louder ?
Suddenly , the bell on the wall rang loudly .
Someone knocked loudly at the door .
The bomb exploded loudly (= with a loud noise ) .
3. fear 作名词或者动词“害怕，恐惧，担忧”
She feared for the little boy's safety .
There is no fear of his losing his way . 他不会迷路的。
I fear that I am late . = I'm afraid that I am late .
I have a fear that we will be late . = I'm afraid we will be late .
―Is she going to die ?
― I fear so . 恐怕如此。
A: Will he get well ?
B: I fear not . 恐怕不会好了。
(2) for fear (that) 由于害怕，生怕，以免。后跟的从句中用情态动词 might , would , should 。
I took an umbrella with me for fear (that) it should rain . 我因为怕下雨而带雨伞去。
4. aircraft 飞机；航空器（包括飞机、直升机、滑翔机、飞艇、热气球等）；飞艇
The airline has ordered 25 new aircraft . 这家航空公司定购了 25 架飞机。
aircraft 是集合名词，单复数一样。在测试中必须注意不要在其后加 -s 。
by aircraft 用航空器（注意中间不要加 the ），相当于 by plane , by air , by airplane , by aeroplane 。
5. flight 楼梯的一段。
He lives two flights up . 他住的地方还要再上两段楼梯。
She fell down a flight of stairs . 她从一段楼梯上摔了下来。
〖测试要点〗辨析 flight 和 stair
flight 是“一段楼梯”。stair 是“一层后台阶”。可见 flight 范围大于 stair，也就是说，flight 是由一层一层的stair 组成。另外，flight 还作“飞行，飞翔，航班，射程”讲。
How long is the flight to New York ?
She took the two o'clock flight to Chicago . 她搭两点飞往芝加哥的航班。
Did you have a good flight ? 这躺飞机还好吧 ？
The flight of stairs wants repairing .
His room is three flights up . 他的房间在 3 段楼梯上面。
1. be worried about 为……发愁，焦急，担心
He was worried about / over her health .
2. turn up 出现；向上翻；扭亮灯，开大音量
He promised to come but hasn't turned up yet . 他答应来，但还没有露面。
She turned her nose up at the idea . 她对这个主意翘起了鼻子。（表示蔑视）
He turned up the ends of his trousers . 他卷起了裤腿。
Please turn up the radio a little . It's too low .
Something unexpected may have turned up .
〖测试要点〗会辨析使用由 turn 构成的词组：
turn against 背叛。turn away from 把脸从……转过来。turn back 折回，把……逐回。turn down翻下衣领，调小，关小。turn in 归还，递交。turn off 关掉。turn on 打开。turn over 翻倒,仔细考虑。turn to 转向，求助于。by turns = in turn(s) 轮流，依次。take turns at +doing 轮流干。
We take turns at cooking . = We cook by turns .
They sang on the stage in turn .
We drove the car by turns . = We took turns at driving the car .
The key you lost has turned up . 你遗失的钥匙已经找到。
I turned to him for advice .
A big wave turned over the fishing boat .
It turned out that two passengers had been killed .
Everything turned out well . 一切顺遂。
Don't turn on the TV now .
Turn off the lights before you go out .
Please turn down the television .
We had better turn back now , for it is getting dark .
She turned away and cried .
Nothing can make me turn against my company .
3. at least = at the least 至少
The food wasn't good but at least it was cheap .
注意区别：not in the least 一点也不，丝毫不。
He is not in the least angry .
4. What / How + about … 干……怎么样？……好吗 ？
How / What about a cup of coffee ?
〖测试要点〗What / How about 后可接名词 （或者动名词、代词）
How / What about taking a walk ?
How about going to Qingdao for our holidays ?
Some of them have gone . How about the others ?
What about us having a break under the tree ?
5. in actual fact = in fact = in reality = as a matter of fact = actually 其实，事实上
I thought she was six , but in actual fact , she's only four .
1. pick up 得到，获得，收听到，拾起，中途让某人上车
This kind of radio can pick up the programmes broadcasting by BBC. 这种收音机接受 BBC电台的节目比较容易。
He had picked it up from a research station in the desert the day before . 这是他前一天从沙漠地区的研究所取来的。
2. glance over = glance ( one's eyes ) over 随便看一看，浏览 。
Oh , he didn't study it . He only glanced over it . 噢，他没有研究过它，只粗略地看了一看。
glance over 有时相当于 look over , glance through。在课文中的 … then glanced over his shoulder before continuing down the street . (然后他回头望了望，就又沿街走去。)
最好一段中的 glance at 为“对……瞥一眼”。He glanced at his watch once again .
3. have a sudden thought 突然想出一个主意
I still remember he had a sudden thought in time of danger . 我至今记得他当时在危险的紧急关头想出了办法。
have … thought of / about 有……的办法，有……想法，有……打算
I had no thought of hurting his feeling . 我无意伤害他的感情。
I had some thoughts of going to the countryside . 我想到乡下去。
Have you got any thoughts about next weekend ? 你下周有啥打算 ？
4. in a flash 瞬息，刹那间
In a flash he remembered everything and a plan began to form in his mind .
An idea formed in my mind in a flash . 我脑子里闪出一个想法。
5. hold out 伸出，拿出
He held out his hand and stopped a taxi . 他伸手拦了一辆出租车。
6. on one's arrival ……一到达
On his arrival he went straight to the counter . 他一到达就径直向服务台走去。
7. in uniform 身着制服
Do you know the man in uniform over there ? 你认识那边身着制服的人吗 ？
8. appear calm 外表显得很镇静（注意这里 appear 是系动词，故后接形容词 calm ，不要用 calmly ）
9. with fear 害怕地
10. have a look around = look around = look about = look round 环顾四周
11. follow sb upstairs 跟某人上楼 (注意upstairs 为副词，其前不要加 to ）。又如：go upstairs / downstairs
12. break into 非法进入，破门而入；闯入
We had to break into the room as we had lost the key .
This box looks as if it's been broken into . 看来这箱子有人撬过。
13. walk over to 走到……处
14. by name 名叫；指名道性地
The assistant , Tom by name , is asking to see you . 一个名叫汤姆的售货员要求见你。
He call call all his students by name . 他能叫出所有学生的名字。
by the name of 名叫，以……身份
A friend of mine by the name of Mike will be your manager . 我的一个名叫迈克的朋友要成为你们的经理。
15. walk around 在……随便转转
16. with sunglasses = wear sunglasses 戴着墨镜
17. smile to oneself 暗自微笑
The man with the beard smiled to himself .
Bill smiled to himself and began to feel less anxious .
I saw Mary smile to herself as she read the funny article .
注意类似的表达还有： think to oneself 暗想，say to oneself 自言自语。
18. take the lift to the fourth floor 乘电梯到四楼
19. get in a taxi 上出租车。get out of a taxi 下出租车。
20. say one's name aloud 大声说出某人的名字
1. make a lot of money 赚一大笔钱
2. for a moment 一下子，片刻，一会儿
注意：for the moment 目前，暂时
3. get on the aircraft to 乘飞机去……
4. It is perfect for 对……妙极了
5. force sth open 强行打开
注意：open 作宾补。如：The boxes of precious stones were forced open . 一箱箱宝石被强行打开。
6. break off 打断，折断，突然停止，休息，绝交
He broke off a branch and gave it to me .
Tom broke off telling the story to answer the telephone . 汤姆讲故事时突然停下来，去接电话。
She broke off with her best friend . 她与自己最好的朋友断绝了往来。
Let's break off for ten minutes . = Let's have a rest for ten minutes .
7. a flight of twelve stairs 一节 12 级台阶
8. turn round / about 转身，转向
They turned round and stood in the middle of the room , completely astonished .
9. lead up to 向上通到……
10. be curious about 对……好奇
11. escape from 从……逃离
12. make a telephone call to 给……打电话
13. play a trick on 给……开玩笑
14. be ashamed of 对……感到惭愧
15. as busy as a bee 忙忙碌碌
16. a flash of lightning 一道闪电
17. be supposed to do 应该干 ……
1. not do any shopping 不买任何东西
2. send a telegram to sb 给某人发电报
3. shake with fear 吓得直哆嗦
第 28 课中出现了 calm (镇静的，沉着的)，除calm 表达汉语“静”外还有：quiet , silent , peaceful 和 still。现就其用法归纳如下：
a calm day 平静的日子，a quiet night 寂静之夜，a silent , moonless night 一个寂静、没有月亮的夜晚
2. 形容湖、海、洋的“平静”用 calm , quiet 和 still。如：
The sea is very calm . 海面很平静。
The high wind passed and the sea was calm again . 大风过后，海又平静下来。
The waters of the lake were quiet yesterday . 昨天湖面平静。
Still waters run deep . 静水流深。
Keep calm ! 冷静点!
He is always calm even in times of trouble .
He seemed to be calm , but that deceived nobody . 他看上去是一副镇静模样，但其实谁也骗不了。
4. 形容人的“静默”用 quiet , silent。如：
He remained quiet throughout the meeting . 整个会议期间他保持沉默。
5. 形容人的性情温和、文静用 quiet。含没有明显的运动和声音。如：
a quiet girl 文静的女孩
My parents are quiet people . They never go out in the evening . 父母爱静，晚上从不外出。
This hospital lies in a quiet street .
6. 形容人“静止”用 still。still 含寂然不动，鸦雀无声。如：
Please stand still while I take your picture . 我为你拍照时，请站好别动。
Right now you need to stay still . 现在你需要静静地呆着。
The boy couldn't keep still in the doctor's chair . 孩子在医生的椅子上一刻也坐不住。
7. 表达“安静”，quiet , silent , still 都能用。如：
Be quiet / silent . 请安静。
a quiet room 安静的房间
The audience was quite still . 全场听众几乎鸦雀无声。
The town was still in the early hours of the morning . 清晨时刻整个城镇静静的。
The building was usually very quiet . 那楼通常很安静。
They stood calm ( quiet , silent , still ). 他们镇静地（安静地、默不作声地、一动不动地）站着。
All but one ____ here just now .
A . is B . was C . has been D . were
该题答案为D，但考生往往把 one 看作主语，误选B。
The day we looked forward to ____ at last .
A . come B . came C . coming D . comes
由于把人句中 looked forward to 看作谓语，故错选了C。实际上本句是缺少谓语，应选B。
I met the teacher in the street yesterday ____ taught me English three years ago .
A . which B . when C . where D . who
若把 yesterday 误当作先行词，会导致错选B，而其实 teacher 是先行词，应选D。
The news has come from Beijing , ____ an important meeting is being held there .
A . where B . in that C . that D . which
若把 Beijing 看成先行词，则会导致其后面的从句误看作定语从句而错选A。实际上逗号后的句子是 news 的同位语从句，答案应为C。客中结构是为了保持句子的平衡。
We waited ____ line for the bus .
A . for B . in C . on D . with
此句易受习语 wait for 的影响而误选A，其实句中 wait for 已被分隔，应选B。
At that time on it ____ 2200 people .
A . was B . is C . are D . were
若把 it 看成主语，则会误选A。其实主语为 people , 应选D。
We'll do all we can ____ them .
A . help B . to help C . helped D . have helped
由于定语从句用了省略形式，往往把 can 当成从句谓语的一部分，导致误选A。其实这是不定式用作目的状语，应选B。
There are 800 students in the playground of our school , 55% ____ are girls .
A . of them B . in them C . of which D . of whom
He is one of those students who , I am sure , always do ____ best .
A . his B . their C . my D . one's
从表面上看答案似乎是C，但如果注意到前面的 who , 答案就明确了。此题定语从句中的关系代词 who 和谓语动词 do 被 I am sure 分隔开来了。因此正确答案为B。
____ would you say ____ be done ?
A . Why , it should B . Why , should it
C . What , should it D . How , that it should
此题不少学生错选D。原因是不了解此结构是连锁疑问句。其结构为“疑问词+一般问句+特殊问句的其余部分”，往往用来征询对某一疑问点的判断、认识、看法、猜度等。在这种问句中一般问句部分常见的动词有 think , guess , say , suppose , hope , imagine , believe等。此题中疑问词被移至句首，故选A。
― I haven't heard from him for a long time .
― What do you suppose ____ to him ?
A . was happening B . to happen C . has happened D . had happened
粗心者十有八九会选B。实质上此题也是一种连锁疑问句，特殊问句中的 what 移至句首。该句强调的是过的动作对现在造成的影响，因此用现在完成时，故选C。
If better use is ____ your space time , you'll make greater progress in that .
A . spent B . taken C . made of D . used for
此题正确答案为C。乍一看，选C似乎不可思议，认为“be made of”应是“由……制成”之意。实质上此题考查的是短语“make use of”的用法，use 从原结构中分离出来充当条件句中的主语，因此谓语动词用被动式。
What idea can a man who is blind from birth have ____ colour ?
A . of B . in C . for D . with
不少学生误选B，认为“在颜色这方面”。其实此题考查的是“have (some , little , no…)idea of”结构。其中 who is blind from birth 是修饰 a man 的定语从句。该句中的“what idea”是疑问词被移至句首，故选A。
Who did the teacher have ____ an article for the wall newspaper just now ?
A . written B . writing C . write D . to writer
做此题时，首先要理清句子结构，理解 have 的确切含义， have 在此句中意为“请(让、叫)”。该句考查的是“have sb . do sth . ”结构，have 的受动宾语疑问词 who 被移至句首，故选C。
Whom had you better ____ it ?
A . to let do B . let to do C . to let to do D . let do
此题考查两种结构的用法：1 . had better do sth . ; 2 . let sb . do sth . 。此题题意为“你最好让谁做这件事呢 ? ”let 的受动宾语 whom 移到了句首，故选D。
Everybody in our country , men and women , old and young , ____ sports and games .
A . enjoy B . were enjoying C . enjoys D . are enjoying
此题主语和谓语被同位语分隔了。同位语对主语只起修饰、解释、说明的作用，不影响 everybody 的单数性质，故此题选C。
Miss Green as well as Mr and Mrs Green ____ devoted ____ spare time to the research work .
A . has ; her B . have ; their C . have ; her D . has ; their
此题正确答案为A。当主语后面跟 as well as , with , together with , but , including , besides 等连接的名词或代词时，谓语动词和其前面的名词或代词在人称和数方面保持一致。
◆ Rockets in the Sky
What is the sky ? Where is it ? How high is it ? What lies above the sky ? I am sure that you have asked questions like these . They are very difficult to answer , aren't they ?
Perhaps we can answer some of these questions now . What is the sky ? It is vast space . Where is the sky ? It is all around the world . In the sky there is the sun , the moon , and all the stars .
Scientists have always wanted to know more about space . They use telescopes to obtain information . But this is not enough . So they want to send men to some of the other worlds in space .
The moon is the nearest heavenly body to the earth . An airplane cannot fly to the moon , because the air only reaches a height of 240 kilometres . Then there is no air . But a rocket can fly even when there is on air .
A rocket is made of metal there is a hot gas inside it . When it rushes out of the end of the rocket , the rocket is pushed up into the air .
Rockets can fly far out into space . Rockets have already taken men to the moon . One day they may be able to go anywhere in space.
NOTES : ⑴ vast adj . 广阔 ⑵ obtain v . 获得
⑴ What is the sky and where is it ?
⑵ In order to know more about space , what did scientists do ?
⑶ Why can't we fly to the moon in an airplane ?
⑷ what pushes a rocket up into the air ?
⑸ Can we be sure men will be able to go anywhere in space one day ?
月球是离地球最近的天体。飞机不能飞到月球上去，是因为飞机只能到达 24 万米的高度，再往上就没有空气了，但火箭即便在无空气时也能飞行。
答案：⑴ The sky is vast space and it is all around the world . ⑵ They used telephones to obtain information and they wanted to send men to some of the other worlds in space . ⑶ Because the air only reaches a height of 240 kilometres , then there's no air . ⑷ A rocket is made of metal . There's a hot gas inside it . When it rushes out of the end of the rocket , the rocket is pushed up into the air .
Men have always wanted to fly like birds . Birds can fly easily because they are light , but men's bodies are heavier .
Men first went up into the air in balloons . These are big bags , and they are filled with gas . Hydrogen is a useful gas for balloons . It is lighter than air . Helium is also lighter than air , but it costs a lot of money . So balloons were (and are ) usually filled with hydrogen .
Balloons have to fly with the wind as they have no engines to drive them against it . Later , men made airships . These were balloons with engines , but they were also filled with hydrogen and some of them caught fire because the hydrogen escaped and the engines heated it . Then the airship was completely burnt in a few seconds .
Aircraft with wings now take people across the world . Powerful engines drive these machines across the sky . Some of the engines are like the engines of cars , but they are more powerful .
There is another kind of engine which we call the jet engine . An English engineer invented the jet engine . In May 1942 his new engine was fixed in an aircraft , and the aircraft flew quite well . At the same time he Germans were also building a jet engine ; but neither country told the other , of course .
Jet engines are very powerful . Usually two , three or four are enough for an aeroplane ; but some big aircraft have six . Anyone in a moving jet plane can feel the power of the engines . Jet planes can travel faster than sound (Sound travels at about 1100 feet a second . That is about 760 miles an hour .) As a flying jet plane leaves its noise behind it , we do not hear it until it has gone .
Notes : ⑴ hydrogen n .氢气 ⑵ helium n . 氦气 ⑶ be filled with 充满
Exercises : 请回答下列问题
⑴ Which costs more money , balloons filled with hydrogen or those filled with helium ?
⑵ What were airships ?
⑶ Why did some of the airships catch fire ?
⑷ When was the first jet engine fixed in an aircraft ?
⑸ How many jet engines are usually enough for an aeroplane ?
喷气式发动机马力很大。通常在一个飞机里装有两个、三个或四个已经足够了，但一些大的飞机要装六个。在一个正在运动着的喷气式飞机里，任何一个人都可以感觉到这些发动机的力量。喷气式飞机的速度要比声音的传播速度快（声音一 秒钟传播约1100英尺，也就是1 小时传播760 英里）。一个飞行着的喷气式飞机只有它飞过后我们才可听到噪声。
答案：⑴ Balloon filled with helium . ⑵ Airships were balloons with engines , but they were not round .They were long , and the engines were at the back . ⑶ Because airships were also filled with hydrogen and some of them caught fire because hydrogen escaped and the engines heated it . Then the airship was completely burnt . ⑷ In May , 1941 . ⑸ Usually two , three or four are enough for an aeroplane , but some big aircraft have six .
It happened in a small village . The weather was bad and the farmers couldn't get good harvests . Most people were poor and few of them could send their children to school . Only Robert whose uncle was a policeman and worked in a town was in school for three years . So he thought himself the cleverest man in the world and always looked down upon others . One evening the young man went out for a walk and saw several farmers talking under a big tree . He joined them and soon he thought they were all foolish .
“Well , Mr Know-all , ”said an old farmer . “Are you good at guessing any riddles ?”
“Yes , I can guess all kinds of riddles !”the young man said without thinking .
“Please listen to me , then , ”said the old man . “Mr Smith has seven children . Autumn came and the apples were ripe . So he sent one to hold the ladder , two to pick apples and three to take the fruit home . And how many stayed at home ? ”
Mr Know-all thought for a long time and answered , “One ! ”
“You are wrong , ”a little boy returned . “Two persons stayed at home ! ”
All the farmers began to laugh at the young man . And do you know why ?
〖释疑〗There were eight people in the house (Mr Smith and his seven children ) . The farmer sent six to work in the garden . So there were two people left at home .
易错常考的“情态动词+ have done”结构
在本单元出现了多处 “情态动词+ have done”表达推测。如：Something may have happened to her . 该结构经常用于 NMET 测试中，请同学们勿必引起高度的重视。下面是常见的形式：
◇ must + have done (have been doing) 表示对过去情况的推测，只用于肯定句，意思是“一定……”。对过去的否定推测用 couldn't have + done 。对现在的否定推测用 can't be 。
Her eyes were red , she must have been crying . 她两眼通红，一定一直在哭。
You must have left your handbag in the theatre last night , I think . 我想你一定把手提包丢在剧场了。
He can't be Li Ming . Li Ming is taller than him by a head .
She couldn't have gone to the cinema yesterday afternoon , because he was staying with us all the day long .
◇ should (ought to) + have done 表示“本来应该做而实际上没做”，其否定式则表示“本来不该做而实际上做了”，常含有责备的语气。
You should have been here five minutes ago . 五分钟之前你就应该到这里了。
How I regretted the days when I had played and should have studied . 我多么懊悔我本应该好好学习的日子都玩掉了!
◇ could + have done 表示“本来有能力做而实际上没有做”。
― We could have walked to the station , it was so near . 这么近，我们完全能走着来车站。
― Yes . A taxi was not at all necessary . 是呀，根本不必搭车的。
I could have won if I hadn't fallen over . 要不是摔倒，我准能赢。
◇ needn't + have done 表示“本来不必做的事，实际上做过了。”
I got up early , but needn't have done so , because I had nothing to do that morning . 那天早上我起得很早，可我根本不必起这么早，因为我无事可做。
You needn't have written such a long article . The teacher only asked for 300 words , and you have written 600 words . 你没有必要写这么长的文章，老师只要求写300字，你写了600字。
◇ would like to have done 表示“本来希望做而却未做的事”。
I'd like to have gone to college . 我要是上大学就好了。
I'd like to have seen his face when he opened the letter . 我真想看到他拆信时的脸色。
◇ can (could) + have done (have been doing) 表示对过去情况的推测，只用于否定和疑问句中，意为“一定没有……，一定不会……”。用 could 比用 can 语气更加委婉些。
He couldn't have gone to bed , you see , the light in his room is still on .
Where is Dick ? Where can he have gone ? Can he have been working ? 狄克在哪儿呢 ? 他会去哪儿呢 ? 他能一直干活吗 ?
◇ may (might) + have done (have been doing) 表示对过去的推测，多用于陈述句，意思是“可能……”。用 might 比用 may 语气更加委婉。
I may have misunderstood him . 我可能误解他了。
She might have taken the book with her , I suppose . 我想她可能把书带走了。
They might have been quarrelling about the problem the whole day . 对于那个问题他们可能一天都争论不休。
◇ would / should + have done 用于虚拟条件句中，表示与过去事实相反。should 只用于第一人称，would 用于各人称。
I should have called you if I had known your telephone number . 如果知道你的电话号码，我就给你打电话了。
There be 推测句型。其结构形式为：There + can / could / may / might / must + sth ./ sb . 。
There must be many students in the classroom . 教室里一定有许多学生。
NMET 语境选择 100 题
1 . ― What are you doing ?
― I'm looking ____ the children . They should be back for lunch now .
A . after B . at C . for D . up
2 . The teacher told the class to ____ their books , for they would have a test .
A . put away B . put by C . put on D . put up
3 . I wonder what has brought ____ this remarkable change in their relationship ?
A . along B . away C . about D . around
4 . I can hardly hear th radio . Would you please ____ ?
A . turn it on B . turn it down C . turn it up D . turn it off
5 . He must ____ the south , for he likes to have rice for meal .
A . come along B . come over C . come from D . come to
6 . Still , he ____ his post , reporting the water level to the headquarters every fifteen minutes .
A . came to B . stuck to C . devoted to D . got to
7 . By reading quickly , I ____ the book before the library closed .
A . could be finishing B . could have finished
C . could finish D . can finish
8 . ― Must I get through the business in one evening ?
― No , you ____ .
A . mustn't B . haven't C . needn't to D . don't have to
9 . ― Where ____ my umbrella ?
― Somebody ____ it away by mistake .
A . is , must have taken B . is , must take
C . was , must take D . is , takes
10 . The teacher knows a lot about Shanghai . He ____ there before .
A . must be B . must go C . must have been D . must have gone
11 . ― Will your brother stay here tonight ?
― I'm not sure . He ____ shopping tonight .
A . must go B . can go C . may go D . will go
12 . ― Did Jim come ?
― I don't know . He ____ while I was out .
A . might have come B . has come
C . must have come D . should have come
13 . Why didn't you make me a telephone call yesterday ? I ____ about it .
A . should be told B . ought to have been told
C . should have told D . ought to be told
14 . ― Hurry , Mary ! You ____ on the phone .
― Oh , I'm coming . Thank you .
A . want B . are being wanted C . are wanted D . are wanting
15 . How long have you been in Beijing ? I ____ you ____ here .
A . didn't know were B . didn't know , had been
C . don't know , are D . haven't known , are
16 . ―Hasn't Professor Zhou arrived yet ?
― No , but I ____ he ____ here by this time .
A . thought , would be B . think , is
C . thought , was D . think , will be
17 . ―You've agreed to go , so why aren't you getting ready ?
― But I ____ that you ____ me to start at once .
A . don't realize , want B . don't realize , wanted
C . haven't realized , wanted D . didn't realize , wanted
18 . ― Look at this! I ____ some old pictures and ____ this baby picture .
― Is it a picture of you ? It's so lovely .
A . was going through , found B . am going through , find
C . went through , had found D . had gone through , find
19 . ― Where have you been all the time ?
― I came back at noon and I ____ in this room since .
A . have been B . was C . had been D . have gone
20 . She ____ for ten hours at least . It was at nine that she fell asleep last night .
A . slept B . had slept C . has slept D . was sleeping
21 . Don't get that ink on your shirt , for it ____ .
A . won't wash out B . won't be washing out
C . isn't washing out D . doesn't wash out
22 . ― We spent all our money because we stayed at ____ most expensive hotel in town .
― Why didn't you stay at ____ cheaper one ?
A . the , a B . a , a C . the , the D . a , the
23 . ― What would you like to eat ?
― I don't mind . ____ ―Whatever you've got .
A . Something B . Everything C . Anything D . Nothing
24 . My eyes are getting tired . I ____ for two hours . I think I'll take a break .
A . have read B . read C . have been reading D . am reading
25 . It's foolish to have a taxi ____ you can easily walk to the station .
A . if B . that C . where D . when
26 . Harvard , ____ in 1636 , is one of the most famous universities in the United States .
A . set B . formed C . discovered D . founded
27 . ____ you like to see the movie tonight ? I ____ meet you at the gate of the Student Center .
A . Would , will B . Would , can C . Do , must D . Will , could
28 . There was a ____ change in the weather , and the rain came pouring down .
A . quick B . fast C . slow D . sudden
29 . ― Excuse me , can I use your ruler ?
― ____ .
A . No , you can't B . I'm sorry , but I'm using it C . Yes , you could D . I'm afraid you couldn't
30 . I ____ at the station half an hour ago , but the train ____ yet .
A . arrived , didn't come B . was arriving , hadn't come
C . arrived , hasn't come D . had arriving , didn't come
31 . ― Did you visit many places while you were in the States ?
― Yes , ____ .
A . only a few B . only few C . quite a few D . quite few
32 . ― The manager is away .
― Who is taking ______ of the company ?
A . charge B . place C . part D . position
33 . ― Can he lend me some money ?
― I regret to tell you he is ____ you .
A . not rich as B . no more rich than
C . no richer than D. not richer as
34 . ― My goodness! I just missed my flight .
― That's too bad , but I am sure you ____ it if you ____ .
A . had caught , had hurried B . could have caught , had hurried
C . could catch , would hurry D . could have caught , hurried
35 . The small company I had worked for was closed a few months ago , and I am now still ____ a job .
A . looking at B . looking for C . looking up D . looking after
36 . Tom came back with a message ____ there would be a test soon .
A . when B . which C . as D . that
37 . Emily stopped her car ____ a black cat ____ across the street .
A . to let , run B . letting , run C . to let , running D . letting , running
38 . They tested the new medicine ____ doing experiments ____ rabbits .
A . on , with B . by , for C . in , to D . by , on
39 . Sheila , ____ we had been waiting , finally arrived .
A . who B . whom C . for whom D . for which
40 . He is getting better . ____ is no need to send for a doctor .
A . came he B . he came C . did he come D . he did come
42 . ____ many times , but he still couldn't understand it .
A . Having told B . He had been told
C . Though he had been told D . Having been told
43 . If you drive from the airport , go on the motorway and follow the ____ to the city .
A . points B . signs C . plans D . ways
44 . I don't have any ____ but to do as you tell me .
A . way B . choice C . chance D . means
45 . Did you see that ____ involving two cars and a bicycle ?
A . accident B . incident C . danger D . happening
46 . The writer was always looking for suitable ____ to use in his next story .
A . contents B . articles C . ideas D . objects
47 . I'm sorry , David . It wasn't my ____ to cause a quarrel between you and Joanna .
A . point B . meaning C . intention D . view
48 . His wide ____ of the newspaper world enabled him to make a success of his job as an editor .
A . career B . experiment C . experience D . profession
49 . I am sorry you told him the secret . I wish you ____ him the secret .
A . didn't tell B . wouldn't tell &
文件 high3 unit19.doc
标题 New Zealand (新西兰)
文件 high3 unit16.doc
标题 Social and personal（社会与个人）
四会单词和词组：preparation , affect , show sb around , so long as ,
三会单词和词组：have a gift for , easy-going , fun-loving , tourism , workmate
Apologies , regrets and responses
1. I’m sorry …
2. I apologize …
3. Please excuse me …
4. I’m afraid …
5. I shouldn’t …
6. I ought to do …
7. What a shame !
8. That’s nothing . / Never mind . / It’s not important . / It doesn’t matter . / That’s all right . / That’s OK .
9. Don’t worry .
10. Forget it .
复习被动语态的用法。注意现在完成时、现在进行时、一般过去时、一般将来时的被动语态。另外要特别留心情态动词的被动语态、系动词的被动语态、词组中介词与被动语态以及不用被动语态的词组，如：belong to , break out等。
I did little preparation for the examination .
〖点拨〗注意词组make preparations for（为……做好准备）中的preparation要用复数。
They are busy in making preparations for an international medical conference .
in preparation for作为……的准备
She bought a new coat in preparation for winter .
We must prepare for the party .
be prepared to do准备好地干……。乐意干…… 。prepare sb for = prepare sb to do让某人做好……准备。如：
I prepared him for the bad news .
We’ll prepare her to face the difficulty .
The noise from the street affected our work .
The disease is beginning to affect her eyesight .
Does the amount of rain affect the growth of crops ?
The story affected us deeply .
注意：effect结果，效果。have an effect on / upon对……有效。
You’d better make yourself easy-going .
1. take a part-time job干临时工
take a fuu-time job全班工
2. be on one’s / the way to a lecture在去听报告的途中
注意：on one’s / the way to doing即将
He is on the way to becoming a doctor .
3. ask sb for directions = ask sb the way问路
4. go in the direction of朝……方向去
I saw her go in the direction of the bus stop .
5. have a gift for对……有天赋
As far as I know , she has a gift for music .
6. make … lively and interesting
You are supposed to make your speech lively and interesting , which is of great importance .
7. at lunchtime在中饭时
注意类似词组：at dawn在黎明时，at supper在吃晚饭时，at work在上班，等。
8. start one’s own business开始经营自己的行业
9. offer guide services to tourists向游客们提供导游服务
10. lead / live an active life生活活泼
To my great disappointment , he didn’t lead an active life .
11. in a difficult position = in trouble碰到麻烦
12. have nothing to lose不会有任何情况
13. catch sb stealing当场抓住某人偷东西
Later , the salesgirl was caught stealing the goods .
14. in my personal opinion在我个人看来
15. play a trick on作弄某人
It’s impolite for them to play tricks on the foreigners .
16. call in the police叫来警察
17. turn out better结果会更好些
18. set up a company建立一个公司
19. warn sb about / of sth提醒某人当心…… 。warn sb against sth = warn sb not to do sth 。
20. in the course of 在……期间
He fell sick in the course of the discussion .
21. write a reply to sb = write a letter of reply to sb给某人回信
22. have a great / happy weekend= have a good time at weekend过个非常愉快的周末
1. He was on his way to a lecture, … 他正在去听讲座的路上。
〖明晰〗 on one’s/the way在路上，走向；在进行中。on one’s/the way home ( there , abroad)在回家（去那儿，回国）的途中，on one’s/the way to one’s home在回某人家的途中， on one’s/the way to do在去干…的途中，on one’s/the way to doing即将实现……。如：
On the way home he thought over many things . 在回家途中他考虑了很多事情。
He is well on the way to becoming a fine engineer. 他快要成为一个优秀的工程师了。/ The patient is on his way to recovery . 病人在复元中。
2. … and Fred discovered that he had a gift for making a visit interesting and lively . 弗雷德发现自己具有一种使观光既有趣又生动的天赋。
〖明晰〗(1) have a gift for (= have a good head for)有……的才能，有鉴别力，有天才。 如：
He had no gift for making polite conversation at parties . 他生来不善于在集会上讲应酬话。
(2) 形容词interesting and lively作making的宾语补足语。以-ly结尾的单词有些是形容词，不是副词。如：lovely可爱的，friendly友好的，orderly 井井有条的， comradely 同志般的， lively 生动活泼的， motherly 母亲般的， monthly每月的，likely可能的，deadly致命的，lonely偏僻的，寂寞的，silly傻的，daily每月的。
3. In the evenings he studied hard for his exams, and most mornings he took tourists around Oxford . 晚上他努力学习为考试作准备，而大多数上午他带领游人参观牛津大学。
〖明晰〗(1) evening , morning , afternoon , Sunday等用复数形式可作副词，含有每逢这些时间之意。如：
He studied days and worked evenings .他白天学习，晚上工作。
I never get up early on Sundays . 每逢星期天我从不起早。
(SEFC B 3 L62) It’s a part-time job, so I only work evenings . 这是份计时工，所以我只是晚上干。
(2) take sb around＝ show sb around / over , round引导某人参观。
If you are free at two o’clock on Friday, I shall be delighted to take you around this ice-free port . 如果你星期五下午两点钟有空，我将乐意带你参观这个不冻港。
4.This is one example of a part-time job leading to greater things . 这个例子说明了计时工能导致更大的事业。
His carelessness led to the accident . 他的粗枝大业导致了这次事故。
I suggest she take that path leading to the temple . 我建议她走通向寺院的那条路。
5. Generally you will have a greater chance of finding a suitable job if you have done some part-time jobs . 一般来说，如果你做过一些计时工， 那么你找到一份合适工作的机会就多。
〖明晰〗(1) generally ＝in general＝generally speaking一般来讲。
(2) 已学过由chance构成的词组有：have a/no chance of doing有(无) 机会干， have a greater chance of doing有干……更大的机会，give a chance to do给某人一次机会，lose no chance for不放松，抓紧，by chance偶然，无意中，by any chance万一，碰巧。
If you have learned English , you’ll find it a bridge to so much knowledge . 当你学会了英语之后，你就会发现它是通向如此丰富知识的桥梁。
If he has taken two pills of medicine , he will feel much better soon . 假如他服了两片药丸后，很快就会感觉好些。
6. I’ve got a problem and as I don’t know what to do I thought I’d write to you and ask for your advice . 我有一个问题，由于我不知道该怎么办，所以我想我还是给你写信，向你请教。
〖明晰〗(1) what to do为“疑问词＋to do”可在句中作主语、宾语、表语。如：
(SEFC B 3 L22) How to get rid of waste is a great problem for the world today . 如何去除废物是当今世界的一大问题。（作主语）
We wondered when to set sail . 我们不知道何时起航。（作宾语）
(2) I thought在句中作插入语。
(3) advice常用于如下搭配中：ask for one’s advice征求某人的建议 / follow (take) one’s advice采纳某人的建议 / refuse one’s advice on 拒绝某人在… 的建议 / act on / upon one’s advice听从某人的劝告/ act against one’s advice
不顾某人的建议/a useful piece(bit, word) of advice to sb对某人的一个有益的劝告/give sb some advice on……给某人在……一些建议。
7. I think I’m in a difficult position . 我觉得我的处境很麻烦。
〖明晰〗in a difficult position / situation ＝ in trouble.处于不幸（苦恼、困境）中。如：
He is always ready to help anyone who is in a difficult position . 他总是乐于帮助有困难的人。
8. show sb around (round , over) , take sb around , visit, pay a visit to , be on a visit to , make visits to , look around , go sight-seeing
〖明晰〗(1) show sb around (round, over)=take sb around(round, over)领着某人参观。 如：
we’ll be shown around the supermarket in a minute . 马上就领我们去参观一下那个超级市场。
(2) visit , pay a visit to , be on a visit to的后面可跟人，也可跟某地。 单独使用visit还可作“视察、巡视”之意。
She will pay a visit to Europe . 将对欧洲进行访问。
Restaurant and hotel kitchens are visited regularly by public health inspectors . 餐馆及旅馆的厨房定期由公共卫生官员检察。
on a visit to参观，拜访(表达状态或作定语)，make visits to经常拜访。如：
She has been on a visit to our province for a week . 她已对我省进行了五天的访问。
(3) look around/round观光，游览； 掉头环顾。如：
Do we have time to look around the town before lunch ? 我们中饭前有时间在城里游览一下吗 ?
(4) sight-seeing n. adj. 观光游览的。如：a sight seeing bus 旅游车。
9. lively , lovely , living , live , life , alive
〖明晰〗 (1) lively adj.“活泼的，生动的，栩栩如生的”，可作表语定语和宾补，既可指人，也可指物。如：
I feel that everything here is lively . 我觉得这儿的一切都富有生气。
(2) lovely adj.可爱的；秀美动人的。如：
It was lovely to hear from you again . 收到你的来信真让人高兴!
(3) live v.生活， adj. 活的， 实况转播的（常作某物的定语），life是live的名词形式。
We’re living a happy life . 我们过着幸福的生活。
He bought scores of live fish last week . 上周他买了不少的活鱼。
We watched the football match on live television . 我们看了电视实况转播的足球赛。
(4) alive “活着的，存在的”，常作表语或补语。既可用于人，也可用于物，作定语时常后置。如：
If she is alive, she is the happiest woman alive . 她若活着，她是世界上最幸福的人。
(5) living “活着的，有生命的”。常作前置定语。如：
the greatest living painter 还活在人间的最伟大的画家 / There’re no living things on the moon . 月球上没有生物。
另外，living除作现在分词、形容词外，还可作名词“生活、生涯、生计”等， 多用于句型：make / earn a / one’s living by + ing以干……谋生。
10. affect , effect , result
〖明晰〗(1)affect v. 影响，作用（指经常暗示某种变化， 对象是人时可指思想上感情上的变 化）。如：
The economic crisis has seriously affected the country’s exports . 经济危机严重地影响了该国的出口。
The sight affected her to tears . 此情景使她感动得流泪。
(2) effect n. 影响，效果。如：
It had an almost immediate effect on his thinking . 那件事对他的思维有近乎直接的影响。
This medicine has no effect upon her disease . 这种药对他的病没有作用。
In my judgment certain factors affecting the result have been overlooked . 照我看来，某些影响效果的因素被忽略了。
11. link , connect , join , combine , unite
〖明晰〗(1) link联接；联系（指不同事物间的联系）。常用be linked with与……有联系
The interest of his is linked with that of the country . 他的利益同国家的利益联系在一起。
(2) connect的语气没有combine强，表一种事物与其他事物的关系。常用 be connected with与……相联接。如：
They are connected with Chen’s family by their niece’s marriage . 他们和陈家只不过因侄女的婚姻有亲戚关系。
Some films combine education with recreation . 有些电影能容教育于娱乐之中。
(3) join连接（是指把分离的两者连接在一起）。常用join up接好，join…to 把……与……相联接。如：Please join the wires up . 请把电线接好。
Let’s unite against the common enemy . 让我们团结起来反对共同的敌人。
1 . However , he wants to be an engineer .
2 . Hearing the news , he looked very happy .
3 . He works in the company , too .
4 . He , together with his classmates , will see the film .
5 . The man , teaching us English , is from the U . S . A .
6 . Stop here , or you will be fined .
上述六个句子中的逗号只起停顿作用。不管有没有逗号，句1 ― 句5都是简单句， 去逗号也是简单句。句6有逗号是并列句，没有逗号也是并列句。但是在含有非限制性定语从句或状语从句的复合句中，逗号的作用就至关重要了。请看下面的例题：
1 . The weather turned out to be very good , _____ was more than we could expect .
A . what B . that C . it D . which
此题是考查非限制性定语从句的用法。因为有逗号的存在，我们可以判定逗号前面的部分为主句，后面的部分为从句，故答案为D . which 。假如把逗号改为句号，则原题空白处应填It 。
2 . He has two sons , both of ____ are studying in Australia .
A . them B . who C . whom D . they
此题和例题1一样，因有逗号的存在，故答案为C . whom , 这样才能使逗号后面的部分能充当非限制性定语从句。假如把逗号改成句号，上句便成为：He has two sons . Both of them are studying in Australia .
3 . _____ is known to all , the compass was first made in China .
A . What B . It C . As D . That
其实此题也是要考查非限制性定语从句的用法，只不过是把从句放到了主句前面。由于从句中缺少主语，那么能充当主语的就只能是关系代词As ( 即选项C ) 。假如去掉逗号，则应将句子改为：It is known to all that the compass was first made in China . 这时that引导主语从句，It为形式主语。
4 . _____ having lessons , you shouldn’t make noises here .
A . The students are B . As the students are
C . As the students D . Because the students
5 . _____ , so you should go to help him .
A . As he is in trouble B . He is in trouble
C . Being in trouble D . He being in trouble
6 . ____ , they have to have lessons outdoors .
A . The classroom is begin painted B . Being painted
C . Having painted D . The classroom being painted
此题中，逗号后面的部分为主句，逗号前面的部分应为状语 ( 从句或短语 ) 。由于A项不能作状语从句，可以先排除；而B，C两项的逻辑主语与后面句子的主语不一致，因此也应该将它们排除。D项虽然不是状语从句，但是它是由状语从句简化而来的独立主格结构，同样能作状语，故答案为D 。
是 A 还是 B ?
1 . I gave her some money on the understanding that she should spend it on books .
A . 以……为条件 B . 我想 ( 我觉得 )
2 . Father has made a bed for me .
A . 铺好床 B . 做了一张床
3 . I won't make the last train .
A . 造最后以节车厢 B . 赶最后一班车
4 . Mimi is the black sheep of his family .
A . 黑羊 B . 败家子
5 . Xiao Li is really the salt of the earth .
A . 好心人 B . 地球之盐
6 . You leave me in the cold , friend .
A . 让我受冻 B . 令我扫兴
7 . The child is in hot water .
A . 惹麻烦 B . 掉进热水
8 . I answer complaints on the phone .
A . 埋怨对方 B . 解答对方所抱怨的问题
9 . The Indians declared that this “ Pass Law ” was unfair .
A . 通行证法 B . 被通过的法律
10 . With the help of green houses , the villagers can provide cities and towns with all the vegetables in cold weather .
A . 绿色房子 B . 温室
11 . He had a gift for thinking up ways of making political points .
A . 形成自己的政治观点 B . 阐述自己的政治观点
12 . There is nothing worse than breaking the suitcase for the trip .
A . 弄坏箱子 B . 箱子太小
13 . We are none too early for the train .
A . 我们刚好赶上火车。 B . 我们一个都没赶上火车。
文件 high3 unit13.doc
1） be content with
You should be content with what you have.
Farmers are very content with their life at present .
He was very content to have this second-hand car.
Too much work and too little rest often leads to illness.
The test is bad because it leads to incorrect learning.
This idea in teaching might lead to a new method.
In order to prove the servant’s honesty she left a bag containing some money on the table.
On the long journey he proved himself to be an amusing company.
Perhaps this book will prove of some use to you in your studies.
We must work out a better method of saving paper.
Mary worked out a beautiful design for a sweater.
He settled down at the desk to work out the difficult maths problem.
If you stick to the truth, you have nothing to fear.
I stick to what I said yesterday.
He never sticks to anything for very long.
Children are taught to respect their parents and teachers .
You should always show respect to old age .
If you don’t respect yourself ,how can you expect others to respect you?
Switzerland refused to take sides in the two World Wars.
Everybody in the office takes sides in the argument.
Despite my friendship with Frank,I tried not to take sides with him in his brother.
8)advance v./advanced adj.
I signed him to keep away,but he continued to advance.
He was considered as an advanced worker.
May I advance my opinion on the matter?
He read widely among the most advanced thinkers of his age.
Say something about the great scientist Albert Einstein by filling up the form:
Born in Germany
When he was a young boy,
Used to ask lot s of questions , didn’t enjoy school, found it hard to get along with others
By the time he was 14
Learned maths all by himself
From the year he was 17
Studied in Switzerland ,earned money to go no with his studies.
Received a doctor’s degree
Began the research and studies leading to his new discoveries
Received world-wide praise for his research
Won the Nobel Prize for physics;gave talks in many countries
Left Europe for the USA;accept the job as a professor ; asked for little money ;never interested in becoming rich
Took American nationality,spent time working for human rights and progress
Died at the age of 76
文件 high3 unit14.doc
标题 Roots (根)
在本单元，同学们通过阅读课文“Journey into the unknown”和“Roots”，可以了解18 ? 19世纪白人捕捉和贩运黑人作奴隶及虐待他们的罪恶历史。
“Roots” is a well-known novel written by an American author ― Alex Haley , which was a best seller in the USA in the 1970s . “Roots ”is mainly about Haley’s family history , which covers seven generations’ history . In order to find out how his ancestors got to America , Haley did a lot of research and traveled around the USA and Africa looking for information about his ancestors . At last , in Gambia he got to find his roots ― Kunta and a group of the blacks who were caught and sold to America as slaves about 200 years ago .
The novel also describes what his ancestors suffered from during the journey to the USA . “Roots” was published in 1976 and Haley won the Pulitzer Prize in 1977 . Also he became world-famous .
四会单词和词组：reason (v .) , roll over , give out
三会单词和词组：in chains , daylight , from generation to generation , worthwhile
expressing wishes , hope and desire
1. I wish to do … / I am going to do …
2. I want / hope / would like to … ; I intend / mean / plan to do …
3. I would do it if I had the chance .
4. If only I could do …
5. I wish I could do …/ I wish I had …/ I wish I were …
6. I wish you every success .
7. Good luck !
8. I feel like doing sth
9. I’m ready to do …
10. I would rather not tell you .
11. I have been looking forward to doing …
12. I’ve always dreamed of …
13. So do I .
1. reason vi . 评理；劝说；推断为；说服
I reasoned that he was lying . 我断定他在撒谎。
〖点拨〗reason sb into doing = persuade sb into doing = persuade sb to do说服某人干……。reason sb out of说服某人不干……。
另外要注意当reason作名词时常用于：The reason (why) … is that …。the reason for sth和 the reason to do sth是“……的理由。”
The reason (why) he got ill was that he didn’t pay attention to his health .
The reason why we don’t trust him is that he has often lied .
2. worthwhile值得的 ；值得花费时间和金钱的
She was offered a worthwhile job .
〖点拨〗It is worthwhile + to do (或者 ?ing ) 。如：It’s worthwhile visiting the museum . = It is worthwhile to visit the museum .
注意下面的“值得”表达：be worth doing ; be worthy of being done = be worthy to be done 。
如：The article is worthy of careful study . = The article is worthy of being studied carefully . = The article is worthy to be studied carefully . = The article is worth studying .
1. roll over翻滚
The boys rolled over on the snow . How fun it was !
2. give out分发
All the new textbooks have been given out .
The news was given out this morning .
The teacher’s patience at last gave out .
His strength gave out soon .
3. be born a free man生来是一个自由人
4．be in chains戴着镣铐
put sb in chains给某人戴上手铐脚镣
5. be fixed to被固定到……
Will you please make sure the button has been fixed to the board ?
6. be in pain疼痛
7. cry softly to oneself独自轻声哭泣
8. be hit on the head被击在头部
When the thief tried to escape , a woman hit him on the head behind him .
9. reason with sb与某人理论
10. What was to become of them all ? = What would happen to them all ?
11. Worst was to come . 更糟糕的事要发生。
12. run the length of the ship从船的这一头延伸到另一头
13. fall sick with fever因发烧而病到
14. cry out for sth叫喊要某物；哭着要；恳求
Don’t take any notice of Johnny ; he cries out for nothing .
注意：cry out against大声疾呼反对。cry out大声呼喊。如：
The woman in the water cried out “Help !”
The people cried out against the unfair decision of the court .
15. once in a while偶尔，有时候
We go for a picnic in the park once in a while .
Once in a while the dog would run away , but usually he stayed in the yard .
16. open wide开大，睁大
What’s wrong with you ? First , Open you mouth wide , please . Let me take a look at your tongue and throat .
17. in daylight在阳光中
注意：at daylight黎明时。before daylight黎明前。
18. chain / tie sb up = put sb in chains把某人铐起来
19. on one’s arrival某人一到达
On his arrival he set about correcting the compositions .
20. make copies of抄写
21. pass down传下来；传送；传递；遗传
The skill has been passed down over four generations .
22. from generation to generation一代一代地
注意：from one generation to another = generation after generation = from generation to generation
23. go back over centuries追溯几个世纪以前
24. come to a sad part讲述一段伤心的事情
25. play the role of扮演……的角色
He is good at playing the part of Maozedong
1. Born a free man，he was now in chains . 他生来就是个自由人，现在却戴上了镣铐。
〖明晰〗(1) Born a free man为过去分词短语作状语，相当于一个让步状语从句的省略。完整句子为：Although he was born a free man . 再如：Beaten black and blue，he didn't go down on his knees . 虽然被打得遍体鳞伤，他仍不屈膝投降。
(2) in chains / irons 戴着镣铐；在囚禁中。如：
He was in chains and disgrace . 他被囚而受辱。
All the murderers in chains will soon be sentenced to death . 所有戴着镣铐的凶手很快就要被判处死刑。
已学过的由“in ＋ 名词的复数”的介词短语如：
in pairs 成双地 / in circles 围成圆圈形 / in tears 哭着
One man had a head wound and was in pain . 一个人头部受伤，非常疼痛。
had a head wound＝be wounded in the head
in pain 疼痛难忍。已学过的由“ in ＋ 名词的单数”的介词短语， 如： in public公开地 /in silence无声地 / in battle 在战斗中…
2. What was to become of them all，he wondered .他感到纳闷，他们的下场将会怎样呢？
〖明晰〗(1) become of (人或事物的)结果是；使遭遇。如：What will become of her now that her husband has died ? 她丈夫一死，真不知她的遭遇将如何。
What has become of the book I put here yesterday ?我昨天放在这儿的书哪去啦？
(2) he wondered 置于句尾作插入语，意思是“他想知道”。
3. Worse was to come.更糟的事就要发生了。
〖明晰〗worse adj. (bad的比较级)更坏的、更差的、更恶化的。常用句式有：to make the matter worse (＝and what is worse 或worse than all更糟的是。worse在本课作名词“更坏的事”，如：I have worse to tell. 我还有更坏的事要说。 Worse cannot happen.事情不可能更坏了。
4. They had rough weather, and Kunta's back bled from rolling over on the hard wooden boards . 途中天气非常恶劣，由于在硬木板上滚来滚去，昆塔的背流出了血。
〖明晰〗(1) bled 是动词bleed(流血)的过去式。如：His wound bled freely.他的伤口大量出血。/ He is bleeding like crazy from the stomach.她腹部流血不止。
(2) roll over从(边)上滚下；翻转；滚翻。如：
The policeman rolled the body over to look for the missing gun . 警察把尸体翻过来寻找失踪的手枪。
I had to hear Beethoven before I could ask him to roll over . 我得先听一下贝多芬曲，才能请他把唱片翻过来。
5. The moment he reached the country , he started his search . 他一到那个国 家，就开始寻找。
〖明晰〗the moment (instant , hour , time , minute) 以及directly, immediately, 都可用来引导时间状语从句，译作“一……就”，相当于as soon as.
如：(SEFC B2 L59) The young lady rushed into the room immediately she heard the noise . 那少女一听到响声，就冲进房间里。
6. All the stories of families, heroes, wars and journeys are passed down from generation to generation . 所有家族、英雄、战争以及旅行的故事都是一代代地传下来的。
〖明晰〗(1) pass down＝hand down流传；遗传；传递。如：
The special technique has been passed down over four generations . 那种技术已传了四代。
(SEFC B3 L10) customs and memories were handed down by the elders of the race . 传统习俗以及记忆中的人和物，被这个种族的年长者传了下来。
In poor families , clothes may be passed down from one child to the next . 在穷苦人家，一个小孩穿过的衣服会留给另一个年龄小的穿。
(2) from generation to generation 一代一代，世世代代(＝generation after generation.)
7. A few people in each group are given the task of remembering the group's family history that goes back over centuries . 每一个部落中有几个人，他们的任务是记住这个部落追溯到几百年前的家族史。
〖明晰〗(1) go back to (＝date from, trace back to )；追溯，返回到。如：
His family goes back to the time of Norman Conquest . 他的家族可追溯至诺曼底人征服英国的时代。
She found her pocketbook when she went back to the store . 她回到店里找到了她的钱包。
(2) over centuries 在几百年中。over可表“在……期间；到……过完”。 如：(SEFC B3 L27) They had been built over period of six centuries up until 1431 . 他们都是在1431年以前长达六个世纪期间建成的。
over several decades 在几十年中 / stay over Sunday呆过星期天 / work over night 通宵工作。
8. seize , take , grasp , arrest
The policeman seized the thief by the collar. 那个警察抓着小偷的衣领不放。
He took his girl friend by the arm. 他抓着女友的胳膊。
Grasp the rope and I'll pull you up. 抓住绳子，我就拉你上来。
I didn't quite grasp your meaning. 我不太理解你的意思。
(4) arrest 侧重于“逮捕；扣留；防止。”如：
He was arrested in suspicion of having murdered the girl . 他因有谋害少女的嫌疑而被捕。
This newly developed drug has arrested his cancer . 这种新药已控制住了他的癌症。
9 . make up one's mind, decide, determine
〖明晰〗(1) make up one's mind“决心；认定”，后接不定式或that从句，mind随人称而变化。如：
We've made up our minds to devote our lives to serving the people heart and soul . 我们决心把全部生命用于全心全意地为人民服务。
The crop is ruined, so we must make up our minds to that . 庄稼损坏了，我们必须承认那个事实。
(2) decide 指经过考虑或讨论研究作出决定，后接不定式，介词on / upon或从句。 如：
He decided on taking the position at the bank.＝He decided to take the position at the bank . 他决定担任很行的职务。
(3) determine“决心、坚决”，侧重表示决心已下定,任何力量都动摇不了这种决心。 其后常接不定式， 也可接 on / upon + ing 。 如：
His mother has determined to give him a chance . 他母亲决心给他一次机会。
10. give out , give away , give back , give forth , give in , give off , give over , give up
〖明晰〗(1) give out 放出、发生；宣称，公布，发表；分配，分发；用完，耗尽； 精疲力竭。如：
The teacher's patience at last gave out . 老师终于失去了耐心。
His strength gave out . 他筋疲力尽。
(2) give away 赠送；出卖；泄露 / give back 归还；返射 / give forth 放出， 发出(声音，气味等)；发表，公布give in投降；屈服，让步；交上 / give off 发出 (蒸气、光、烟等)/give over 移交，交托 / give up 让给；放弃，抛弃。
11. familiar to , familiar with
〖明晰〗(1) familiar to＝well known to sb“为人所熟知”，其中to为介词，to 后常跟 人。如：
I've been away a long time, and that name is not familiar to me . 我出外很久了，这名字我不熟悉。
(2)familiar with＝well acquainted with“精通、熟知、通晓”。be familiar with的主语一定是人，with后的宾语可人、可物。如：He is familiar with Shakespeare . 他精通莎士比亚的作品。
I am not very familiar with botanical names . 我对植物学上的名称不太熟悉。
12 . what kind of doctor 与 what kind of a doctor
〖明晰〗(1)“what kind / sort of”是问类别，所以：What kind of doctor is he ? 他是 哪科的医生?
(2)“what kind / sort of a (an)”是问程度、性质等具体情况。所以：what kind of a doctor is he ? 他是怎么样的医生?(含医术是否高明，待人处事的能力等)
The Capital of the United States
When George Washington became the first President of the United States , there was no permanent (永久的) capital . During the Revolutionary War seven different cities had served as the national capital . In addition , the members of Congress (议会) could not agree to where this permanent capital should be located (位于) .Some officials wanted it in the North , others wanted it in the South . Each of the states hoped that the capital might be set up within its own state lines .
At last it was decided that the capital should occupy (占有) a section by itself , separate from any of the states . The place chosen was situated on the Potomac River . The land then belonged to the state of Maryland , but Maryland agreed to give it to the national government . The section was named the District of Columbia, after Christopher Columbus . The city itself was named Washington , after George Washington .
Work was begun on the new capital in 1791 . In the year 1800 Congress occupied the new Capital Building . The White House Was opened at the same time as the home of all future presidents .
1 . There was no permanent capital in the United States when George Washington became the first President of the United States because ______ .
A . people didn't like the new government
B . there was not enough money to build the capital
C . American people were too busy fighting to think of the problem of building the capital
D . people had a disagreement about the location of the capital
2 . Which of the following is implied (暗示的) but not stated in the passage ?
A . George Washington's office was perhaps not in the White House .
B . Seven cities used to be the capital of the United States .
C . The North and the South couldn't agree with each other on the problem of the capital .
D . George Washington was the first president of the United States .
3 . The Potomac River _______ .
A . is the longest river in its country
B . separates the capital from the state of Maryland
C . flows through the state of Maryland
D . was given to the national government by Maryland
4 . Which of the following is not true according to the passage ?
A . The White House has a history of about 200 years .
B . The District of Columbia belongs to none of the states .
C . Congress occupied the new Capital Building until 1800 .
D . The White House is a place where American presidents live and work except George Washington .
答案：1. D 2. A 3. C 4. C
文件 high3 unit15.doc
标题 Study skills（学习技能）
enlarge , remind sb of , fix a date for , appreciate, long-term , encouragement
Invitations and responses (邀请与应答)
1. Will you come to …?
2. Would you like to do ？
3. I’d like to invite you to …
4. Are you free on Sunday ?
5. If you’re not doing anything on Monday morning , would you like to do …
6. We’d like you to join us .
7. Do join me for a coffee .
8. We’re having a dance on Sunday . I hope you will come .
9. Would you do me the pleasure of attending our wedding (婚礼) ? = May we have the pleasure of your company at our wedding ?
10. I’d very much like you to come to our dinner party .
1. Yes , I’d love to .
2. Yes , that’s very kind / nice of you .
3. I’d love to , but …
4. How nice !
5. I’d like to … , but … . Thank you all the same .
复习和归纳句子的成分 ―― 谓语；复习情态动词和实义动词的时态。
在情态动词中要重点掌握情态动词的完成时的用法。如：should have done与should not have done , needn’t have done , must have done
1. 主语 people 作“人们，人民”解时，谓语动词用复数，作“民族”解时，有单复数之分。如：
Our people is a great one .
There are 56 peoples in China .
2 . 主语是 a / this / that kind of + 名词，谓语用单数形式，主语指的不是一种而是多种，谓语动词用复数。如：
This kind of cloth feels soft .
There are different kinds of animals .
3 . 主语是“each of … ”，“neither of … ”，“either of … ”，“one of … ”等时，其谓语用单数。如：
Each of them has his own duty .
4 . 陈述部分用 everybody , everyone , somebody , someone , anybody , anyone , nobody , no one 或 no + 复数名词等作主语时，反意部分用 they。而陈述部分用 everything , something , nothing , anything 时，反意部分代词则采用单数，用 it 。
Somebody is waiting for you , aren't they ?
Everything is all right , isn't it ?
5 . 动名词或动词不定式作主语，其谓语用单数形式。
When and where to build the new factory is not decided yet .
6 . 用引号的词语作主语时，谓语用单数第三人称。
“I” is the ninth letter of the English Alphabet .
7 . 在强调结构中如被强调的是句子的主语，则 who 或 that 后面的谓语动词的人称和数应和主语一致。
It is Mike who always helps me study maths after class .
8 . wish 后接宾语从句用虚拟语气，如表示与现在事实相反，无论主语是单数还是复数，be 动词用 were。
I wish I were ten years younger .
9 . police , cattle 等集合名词作主语时，谓语用复数。
The murderer has run away . The police are searching for him .
10 . 算式中表示数目的主语通常看作单数，其谓语常用单数形式，也可用复数。
Five times four is twenty .
11 . youth 作“青年们”解作主语时，谓语用复数。
The youth of China today are doing their best to study modern science and technology .
12 . each 作同位语放在复数主语后，谓语不受单数 each 的影响。如：
The boy and the girl each have their own toys .
13 . 当 with 引出的短语结构后面出现 both 时，with 的含义变成 and ，此时谓语动词应该用复数形式。如：Martin with his wife ,both working in the same company , have decided that they would send their little daughter to the nearest kindergarten .
14 . “one of + 复数名词 + 谓语”是固定结构，谓语动词用单数。但是，在“one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”句型中，定语从句的谓语用复数；若 one of 的前面有 the , the only 时，谓语仍用单数。试对比：
He is one of the people who always help others .
She is the only one of my guests that comes from India .
15 . 主语是以-ics 结尾的学科名词以及 news , works , (工厂) , politics 等都属形式复数，而意义单数的名词，其谓语用单数形式。另外 means 一词单复数同形应视具体情况而定。
Mathematics seems to be difficult to learn .
A new means of teaching is being used in that school .
注：学科名词前如有物主代词修饰时，谓语常用复数。如：My mathematics are week .
16 . 主语是用作书名、剧名、报纸名、国名等的复数名词，谓语一般用单数形式。
The United States is a developed country .
We enlarge the playground last year .
〖点拨〗enlarge on / upon详述；细说
Could you enlarge on / upon the point ?
He received a lot of encouragement from his teacher . 老师给了他很大的鼓励。
〖点拨〗encourage sb to do鼓励某人干…… 。encourage sb in助长。如：
The boss encouraged me to study abroad .
Don’t encourage him in his laziness .
They were encouraged by the encouraging news .
His works were not appreciated until after his death . 直到死后，他的作品才受到重视。
You will appreciate his novels better if you read his past .
〖点拨〗appreciate / enjoy + doing欣赏干……。
Do you appreciate driving minibus ?
1. remind sb of使某人想起 ……
He reminded me of his kind father .
I was reminded of my promise .
注意：remind sb that ……使人想起。remind sb to do提醒某人做某事。
She reminded me that I hadn’t watered the flowers .
Remind me to mail this letter after work .
I reminded him to work hard .
2. fix a date for确定……的日期
Let’s fix a date for a picnic this weekend .
注意动词fix的词组：fix one’s eyes on / upon凝视。如：His eyes were fixed on the photo on the wall .
3. pick up a travel book拿起一本游记
I have only been able to dip into your book yet ; I hope soon to be able to read it seriously .
I can’t say that I know a great deal about modern painting ― I’ve just dipped into one or two books on the subject .
5. read bits here and there这儿看一点那看一点
6. turn to翻到；求助于
Please turn to Page 30 .
We must turn to our monitor to finish such a thorough cleaning .
7. if you wish如果你想要的话
8. an article of clothing一件衣物
注意：a suit of clothes一套衣服
9. above all最重要的是
注意：in all总共，first of all首先。
10. refer to
Don’t get angry . The person he referred just now isn’t you .
11. take turns to do轮流干……
12. shut up闭嘴；住口；关闭
For heaven’s sake , shut him up , he’s said quite enough already .
Shut up ! You’re just talking nonsense .
We got the house shut up only minutes before the storm hit . 在暴风雨来临之前几分钟，我们才把屋子的门窗关闭起来。
13. talk things through充分透彻地谈问题
14. make good (great , rapid , much , little ) progress in
15. agree on a time在时间上意见一致
16. a letter in reply回信
17. in the immediate future不久的将来
1. But not all stories belong to this class . 但并不是所有小说都属于这一级别。
〖明晰〗(1) not与all , both , every , always , altogether , entirely , everybody , everything , everywhere连用表达部分否定。如：
All is not lost that is in danger . （谚）处于危险中并非就是失败。(祸福难分)
The good and the beautiful don't always go together . (Shakespeare) 善和美不一定时常是相连的。
(2) class 在本课作“等级，种类”讲。如：
travel third class 乘三等车（或舱）旅行/He is doing first class.他干得 非常好。/It's one of the second-class public schools.那是一所一流的公立学校。
2. Second , do not stop every time you come to a word or phrase you do not know . 第二，不要每碰到一个不认识的单词或短语就停下来……。
〖明晰〗Every time, each time “每次，每当，无论何时”以及by the time “到……时” 可相当于连词引导时间状语从句。如：
Every time I meet him , he tries to borrow books from me . 每当我遇到他，他总是向我借书。
By the time he was 15 , he had already had his own laboratory . 到他15岁时，他已经有了自己的实验室。
3. …by the end of the chapter you will have guessed its meaning . 到了全章快读完时，你就会猜出这个词的意思了。
〖明晰〗(1)由by the end of…引出的短语，主句常用过去完成时或将来完成时。如：
By the end of last month, they had produced 1000000 candles .
By the end of this century, China will have become a socialist country . 到本世纪底，中国必将成为一个社会主义强国。
(2) will / shall + have + p.p. 构成将来完成时，该时态可表将来某一时刻前已完成的动作，也可表说话人对某一业已先成的事态的推测。如：
He will have gained his pilot's license before his next birthday . 他下个生日前会拿到飞行证的。
You will have received an invitation to the wedding as well . 你肯定会收到参加婚宴的邀请的。
4. …and is therefore likely to be an article of clothing . 因此很可能是一件衣服。
〖明晰〗likely常用于sth / sb + be + likely to do很可能干但possible , probable , impossible , improbable 却不用人作主语 , 常用 : It + be + possible / probable (for sb) + to do. 如：
He is likely to be the best poet here . 他很可能是这最好的诗人。
It is impossible that he can finish the task in such a short time . 他不可能在如此短的时间内完成这项任务。
（本课最后一段中）If you hate science stories , you are unlikely to enjoy reading them in English . 如果你不喜欢科幻小说，那么你不大可能喜欢读英文版的科幻小说。
5. In other words , I should not watch TV, or look over your shoulder at other people while we are talking together . 换句话说，我们在一起交谈时，我不应该看电视或越过你肩膀看别人。
〖明晰〗(1) in other words 换句话说 (= that is , that is to say)
(2) look over 从…上面看过去；查看；检查。如：
Don't look over your shoulder while walking on such a slippery road . 在过如此滑的路面时，请匆扭头张望。
The secretary spent a night looking over her notes . 秘书花了一夜时间查看她的记录。
6. First , take turns to listen . 首先 轮流做听众。
〖明晰〗take turns“依次，轮流”后常接不定式，at＋ing或直接加-ing 。表示“轮流”的介词词组有 in turn 和 by turns 。如：
take turns to watch over the oxen = take turns (at) watching over the oxen = watch over the oxen in turn = watch over the oxen by turns . 轮流看护牛群。
（本课最后一段）If friends can take turns to listen to each other well, life will be better ! 如果朋友们之间能轮流做好听众，生活就会更美好!
7. hobby , habit , custom , practice
〖明晰〗 (1) hobby (业余)爱好；嗜好，消遣。如：
Reading children's literature is a hobby with my nephew . 我侄侄在业余时间爱读儿童文学消遣。
He collects butterflies for a hobby . 他以搜集各种蝴蝶为业余爱好。
Growing roses is her hobby . 养玫瑰花是她的爱好。
Smoking is a bad habit . 吸烟是种坏习惯。
habit 的常见搭配有：be in the / a habit of , have the / a habit of 有……的习惯，break away from / off a habit改掉一种习惯， get / fall into the habit of 养成……习惯。
It is the custom to dye eggs at Easter . 在复活节染鸡蛋壳已成为习俗。
I don't like her practice of going to bed late every evening . 我不喜欢他每天晚睡的做法。
8 .above all , in all , after all , all in all , for all
〖明晰〗 (1) above all 首先，首要，尤其。如：
Never waste anything . Above all , never waste time . 任何东西都不可浪费，尤其不可浪费时间。
(2) in all 总共，共计。如：
Shall I pay you the money in part or in all ? 这笔款子我该给你部分地付还是全部付清泥 ?
(3) after all 毕竟，终究，终归。如：
He said he would not come in, but he came in after all . 他说他不进来，但他毕竟进来了。
(4) all in all总的来说，总计；完全地。如：
The book has some weak spots , but all in all. I consider it a success . 这本书有一些缺点，然而总的来说我认为它是成功的。
(5) for all 尽管。如：
For all his wealth , he is unhappy . 尽管他很有钱，他并不快乐。
9. shut up , shut down , shut away , shut in , shut off , shut out
〖明晰〗 (1) shut up 闭嘴，住口。如：
Shut up ! You're just talking nonsense . 住口!你这是在说废话。
(2) shut down 停工，停业。如：
The automobile plant was shut down for two months as a reasult of the strike . 那家汽车厂由于罢工关闭了两个月。
(3) shut away 限制，隔离，禁闭。如：
Important prisoners were shut away in a remote mountain village . 重要的犯人被监禁在偏僻的山林里。
(4) shut in 围住；关进；禁闭(= shut away)。如：
The house was shut in by factories all round . 这房子周围都被工厂围住。
(5) shut off 关停（煤气，水电等）。如：
They shut off the gas and electricity in their house before leaving on holiday . 他们假日离家前把煤气和电都关掉。
(6) shut out 不让……进来，把……关在外面(＝ keep…out of)。如：
The late comers were all shut out of the stadium . 迟到者都被关在体育场外面不让进去。
10. enlarge, expand , extend , widen , broaden , grow , increase
〖明晰〗 (1) enlarge“扩大”，指面积，体积和范围的扩大及能力的增大，不指重量、 速度，时间等。如：
an enlarged meeting扩大会议/The city has enlarged.城市面积扩大了。 /The business is enlarging. 企业在不断扩大。/Reading a lot enlarges the mind. 大量阅读使人增长才智。
(SEFC B3 L26) So certain types of plant grow all over the stones and their roots go down into the holes between the stones . 所以某些种类的植物在这些石头上面长满了， 它们的根深深钻进石块之间的洞穴 之中。
(3) increase 指数量、程度、财富、权力的“增加、增长”。如：
Total industrial output value increased by 8% . 工业总产值增长了百分之八。
(4) expand 膨胀大，extend 延伸长，widen 和 broaden 为“加宽后扩大”。
as poor as a church mouse
教堂 ( church ) 是教徒们进行宗教活动的地方，教徒们虔诚地作礼拜，当然没有人在这里吃东西，自然也不会有食品橱，一切都为得庄严肃穆。所以老鼠想在教堂里找吃的东西，根本的枉费心机，教堂里的老鼠 ( a church mouse ) 是非常穷的，所以就有 as poor as a church mouse 的说法，指某人一贫如洗。请看例句：
You want to borrow money from him ? He is as poor as a church mouse .你想向他借钱 ? 他一贫如洗。
1. after one’s heart 2. a heart of gold
3. find in one’s heart to 4. have sth at heart
5. heart and soul 6.heart to heart
7. pluck up one’s heart 8. put one’s heart into
9. with a light heart 10. with one’s whole heart
答案：1、称心如意 2、道德高尚 3、心甘情愿 4、牢记在心 5、全心全意 6、开诚布公 7、鼓起勇气 8、专心致志 9、轻松愉快 10、诚心诚意
一、易错用的主谓语一致 14 点
1. each + 名词 + and each + 名词用作主语时，谓语动词用单数。
〔 错例 〕Each boy and each girl have got an apple .
〔 改正 〕改 have 为 has .
〔 归纳 〕下面两种情况，动词也用单数：
A . every + 名词 + and every + 名词作主语时：
Every man and every woman in the village is here .
B . no + 名词 + and no + 名词作主语时：
No teacher and no student has seen the film .
〔 错例 〕Her teacher and friend often help her to paint .
〔 改正 〕改 help 为 helps。
〔 归纳 〕两个名词用 and 连接用作主语，重复使用冠词和不重复使用冠词时，动词可能不一样。下列短语作主语时，应视为复数 ( 第二个冠词省略了 ) ： a boy and girl , a man and woman , the Chinese and Japanese language , the oil and textile industry , a teacher and student , a cow and ox等。如：比较：
A journalist and a novelist have come to see you .
A journalist and novelist has come to see you .
A man and woman are walking on the street .
〔 错例 〕A cart and horse are seen coming to us .
〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。
〔 归纳〕以下名词短语都可视作单数。a watch and chain 一块带链的表，a needle and thread 一套针线，a knife and fork 一副刀叉，a cup and saucer 一套碟子茶杯，a coat and tie 一件上衣带领带，bread and butter 奶油面包，aim and end 目的，truth and honesty 真诚，child care and education 对孩子的管教，time and tide 岁月，the long and short of it 总的意思,iron and steel 钢铁,law and order 治安,soup and salad 汤与凉拌菜 ,hard struggle and plain living 艰苦奋斗与生活简朴。
4. Mary a + 单数名词作主语时，谓语动词用单数。
〔 错例 〕Many a scientist have devoted their lives to science .
〔 改正 〕改have 为 has
〔 归纳 〕A . a great many , a good many 都需要接复数名词，作主语时，动词用复数。B . more than one + 名词作主语时，动词用单数。C. more than one 不接名词时，动词用单数或复数都可以。D.在 there be 结构里用单数或复数。如：There is ( 或 are ) more than one student in the classroom .
5. one and a half …与 a + 名词 + or two 作主语
〔 错例 〕One and a half cakes are left on the plate .
〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is 。
〔 归纳 〕one and half + 名词作主语习惯上视作单数，但名词需要用复数形式。One or two + 名词作主语时视作复数；而 a + 名词 + or two 作主语时却可视作单数或复数。如：
There are one or two things I want to tell you .
A word or two is ( 或 are ) needed here . 这儿还需要一两个词。
6 . ( together ) with + 名词不影响原来主语的人称和数。
〔 错例 〕Mr.Wang , together with his wife , have gone to Australia .
〔 改正 〕改 have 为 has。
〔 归纳 〕下列词语与名词连用均不影响原来主语的人称和数：as well as , along with , as much as , but , except , in company with , more than , no less than , like , rather than , plus 等。
7 . 数词 + 名词表示重量、长短、距离、钱数、分数、时间等作主语时，动词用单数。
〔 错例 〕Twenty years are too long for a man's life .
〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。
〔 归纳 〕动词用单数是因为我们把这些复数名词看成一个整体。如：
Three hours is enough for him to perform the operation .
The first fifty years are the hardest . 最初的五十年是最艰难的。
8 . A number of books 与 The number of books 作主语时应选用数不相同的动词。
〔 错例 〕The number of books are twenty-three .
〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。
〔 归纳〕A . the number of…意思是“…的数目；……的号码”，作主语时，动词用单数；a number of…意思是“许多…”，作主语时，动词用复数。如：The number of the key is 207 .
B . the average of + 名词作主语时动词用单数：an average of + 名词作主语时动词用复数。如：
The average of letters received each week is 600 . 平均每周收到的信件是600件。
An average of 600 letters a week are received by the newspaper's office . 报馆每周平均收到600封信。
9.a basket of eggs 等作主语，动词用单数。
〔 错例 〕A basket of pears are not enough for them .
〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。
〔 归纳 〕下面短语作主语时，动词也用单数：a basket of ( eggs ) 一篮 ( 鸡蛋 ) ，a cluster of ( grapes ) 一串 ( 葡萄 ) ， a pile of ( apples ) 一堆 ( 苹果 )， a team of ( football players ) 一队 ( 足球运动员 ) 。但 a group of ( students ) 作主语时，动词通常用复数。但：A group of girls are playing hide-and-seek .
10 .The rest ( of + 名词 ) 作主语时，动词不一定用单数。
〔 错例 〕The rest of the students is girls .
〔 改正 〕改 is 为 are。
〔 归纳 〕下面的词语作主语或作主语修饰语时则根据这些词所代表的名词的数或修饰的名词的数来决定动词的单、复数：Who , what , which , all , any , more , most , some , a lot of , lots of , plenty of , quantities of 以及 half , part , the rest , the remainder , 分数，百分数等。试对比：
Which are yours , the green ones or the red ones ?
Which is yours , the big one or the small one ?
There is only a little ink . All is here .
There are three books here . All a re written in English .
Twenty percent of the skin has been burnt .
Twenty percent of the machines are exported .
Two -thirds of the surface of the earth is water .
Three-thirds of the books are novels .
〔 错例 〕Our family is all early risers .
〔 改正 〕改 is 为 are。
〔 归纳 〕这一类名词有： class 班，club 俱乐部，crew 全体船员 ( 乘务员 ) ，committee 委员会，couple 一对夫妇，crowd 人群，group 组、队 , audience 观众，听众，family 家庭，firm 公司；商号，flock 一群人，government 政府，public 公众，union 工会；联合会，team 队，England ( football team ) 英格兰足球队，等。这些名词用作主语时，如被看作整体，动词用单数，代词可用 it，its，which。如果是指该整体的成员，动词应用复数，代词用 they，their , who。但要注意主语、动词、代词在数方面的一致。如：
不可说：The crowd moves on . No one tries to stop them .
应该说：The crowd moves on . No one tries to stop it .
The class is big .
The class are practising swimming .
12. the country 可指“全国人民”，作主语时，动词用单数。
〔 错例 〕The country are opposed to war .
〔 改正 〕改 are 为 is。
〔 归纳 〕表示“全体人”的这类名词还有：city , college , factory , house , school , table , town , university , world 等。它们与 the 连用作主语时，动词应该用单数。如：
The whole table has heard what he said .
The whole university is against the changes .
The world knows that pollution has become a serious problem .
13. the + 形容词作主语时，动词不一定用复数。
〔 错例 〕The old is respected in our country .
〔 改正 〕改 is 为 are 。
〔 归纳 〕定冠词 + 形容词时，如表示一类人作主语时，动词用复数。常见的这一类有：the absent 缺席者，the aged 老年人，the brave 勇敢者，the dead 死人，the dying 要死的人，the deaf and mute 聋哑人，the disabled 残疾人，the exploited 被剥削者，the homeless 无家可归的人，the living 活着的人，the lost 失踪的人，the old 老年人，the oppressed 被压迫者，the poor 穷人，the present 出席的人，the rich 富人 ，the sick 病人，the strong 强者，the weak 弱者，the wise 聪明人，the wounded 伤员，the young 青年人等。
14. 用 either…or 连接的两个名词或代词作主语时，最接近动词的名词或代词决定动词的单、复数。
〔 错例 〕Either you or I are wrong .
〔 改正 〕改 are 为 am。
〔 归纳 〕涉及到类似用法的连词有 or , not only…but ( also ) 和 neither…nor。如：
You , he or I am to be sent to the front .
Neither you nor I am a doctor .
Not only you but also he has been to the Great Wall .
Are either you or he against this plan ?
1 . 美丽的长城值得一看。
误：The beautiful Great Wall is worth to visit .
正：The beautiful Great Wall is worth visiting .
析：worth 是形容词，后面要跟名词或动词 - ing 形式，不能跟动词不定式。如将上面的 to visit 改成 a visit 也是正确的。
2 . 到了上学期末，我已学习将近两千个英语单词。
误：By the end of last term , I learned nearly two thousand English words .
正：By the end of last term , I had learned nearly two thousand English words .
析：这里的 by 有“before ( 在……之前 ) ”或“not later than ( 不迟于 ) ”的意思，表示“在 ( 某时 ) 前”或“到某时”已发生某事或出现某种情况，谓语动词多用完成时态。句中是“上学期末”，所以用过去完成时态。
3 . 那人走过来夺了老人的包。
误：The man came over and took the possession of the old man's bag .
正：The man came over and took possession of the old man's bag .
析：“take possession of”意为“夺取、占有”，是固定的表达方式，一般在 possession 前面不用 the。
4 . 这些动物对美洲土著人的生活有很大影响。
误：These animals had a great effect to the life of Native Americans .
正：These animals had a great effect on the life of Native Americans .
析：“have an effect on ( upon ) ”是固定搭配，意为“对……有影响”，“对……起作用”，effect 后面跟介词要用 on 或 upon，不能随意改动。
5 . 他突然间击了她的头。
误：All of a sudden he hit her on her head .
正：All of a sudden he hit her on the head .
析：汉语中“打某人的头”，在英语中常用“hit + sb . + on + the + 身体部位”这样的结构。值得注意的是其中冠词 the 不能用物主代词代替。又如：
He hit the boy in the face . 他打了孩子的脸。 ( face 前面要用 the , 不能用物主代词。 )
6 . 他没有逃跑得了，被俘了。
误：He failed to run away and was taken the prisoner .
正：He failed to run away and was taken prisoner .
析：“to take prisoner”，意为“被监禁”、“被俘”，是个习语，prisoner 前面不能用冠词。但是 take 这个动词可以用 keep 或 hold 代替。又如： He was taken ( held , kept ) prisoner in a small island . 他被囚禁在一个小岛上。
7 . 他一到达，就被卖给一个农民当奴隶。
误：At his arrival he was sold to a farmer as a slave .
正：On his arrival he was sold to a farmer as a slave .
析：“on one's arrival”是一个习语，其中介词要用 on，不能用别的词代替。
8 . 报社给他提供了一些资金。
误：His newspaper provided him some money .
正：His newspaper provided him with some money .
析：“为某人提供某物”，用 provide 表达有两种方式，一是“provide sb . with sth . ”，另一种是“provide sth . for sb . ”，也就是说要用介词搭配，误句中少用了介词。度比较：
The government is trying to provide the unemployed with jobs . ( = The government is trying to provide jobs for the unemployed . ) 政府正力图为失业者提供就业机会。
9 . 他一登台，我就认出他来了。
误：I recognized him the moment when he appeared on the stage .
正：I recognized him the moment he appeared on the stage .
析：the moment 虽是名词，但在这儿可以作连词用，相当于 as soon as , 因此后面再用 when 就是多余的了。类似的名词如 the minute , the second 等也可以这样。上面正句里的 the moment 也可以用 the minute , the second 来代替。又如：
The moment / minute / second you arrive at the port , please telephone me . 你一到达港口，就请给我打个电话。
10 . 你们当中一人扮演哈利，另一个人扮演记者。
误：One of you plays role of Harley , and the other role of a reporter .
正：One of you play the role of Harley , and the other the role of a reporter .
析：role 作“角色”解，通常构成“play ( take ) the role of . . . ”结构，意为“扮演……角色”。这是固定搭配，“the”不可少。又如：
He wishes to take ( play ) the role of a king . 他想扮演国王。
Both of them wanted to play ( take ) the leading role . 他们俩都想演主角。
11 . 他每次进城总要拜访他的老师。
误：Every time he came to the city , he would visit his teacher .
正：Every time he came to the city , he would visit his teacher .
Copy it down every time you come to a beautiful sentence . 每当你碰到一个漂亮的句子就把它抄下来。
12 . 年轻人应该永远尊敬老年人。
误：Youth should always show the respect to old age .
正：Youth should always show respect to old age .
析：“show respect to”是一个习语，意思是“对某人表示尊重”，其中 respect 是不可数名词，前面不用冠词，但是可以有修饰词修饰。其中 show 可以用 have 代替，介词 to 也可用 for 代替。例如：
She had / showed no respect to / for manager . 她对经理一点也不尊重。
They have / show a great respect to / for the journalists .他们对记者非常敬重。
写一篇短文，简述 Green School 受欢迎的原因。请在短文中包含以下内容：
1 . 历史悠久。
2 . 校园美丽。
3 . 设备良好。教学楼、实验室、语音室、计算机房、图书馆及体育馆都属全市最好的。
4 . 收费合理，每学期?3000。
5 . 教师出色，大部分毕业于名牌大学。他们耐心，有经验，热爱学生。
Why is Green School so popular in our city ?
For one thing , the school has a long history . Its school garden is very beautiful with trees and flowers everywhere . It is also well equipped . The classroom buildings , the experiment labs and the sound labs , the computer rooms , the library as well as the gymnasium are among the best of all schools . Besides , the tuition is only 3000 a term , less than that of other schools . But the most important reason for its popularity is the excellent teachers in Green School . Most teachers graduated from well-known universities and colleges . They have great patience , much experience and especially , deep love for the students .
文件 high3 unit4.doc
标题 Feed the World
v. be sorry for the loss of; wish to have again; feel sorry for懊悔；抱歉；遗憾。后接不定式与-ing意思不同。接不定式意为“遗憾要去做……”
We deeply regretted his death.
I regret to say that I can’t help you. (比I am sorry to say that…较为正式的表达)
He regrets that he was rude to her.
She regretted not having told you about it earlier.
n. feeling of sadness at the loss of sth. or disappointment because sth. has or has not been done.懊悔；抱歉；遗憾。
I feel regret at her absence.
We heard with regret that you were not successful in your plan.
I waste no time in useless regret.
*provide: v.to supply; to prepare for提供；供给、装备；
搭配为：provide sb. sth.; provide sth. for sb. provide sb. with sth.
We can provide ourselves.
The mother provided them some thick clothes.
We must provide food for the trip.
The Red Cross provides food and clothes for the sufferers.
*increase: v.[in’kris] to become greater in size, number, value etc.增加；繁殖。
The population of this town has increased to 2000,000.
The population of this town increased by 10 percent last year.
There has been a big increase in road accidents.
注意：increase的n.名词读音与动词不同[‘ inkris]，它的反义词为decrease v.减少；缩减。
*now and again; occasionally; at times; now and then时而
On my way home from school, I called on Granny Li now and again.
*help oneself to… serve oneself with food(drink) etc. 衣随便吃（喝）
Please help yourself to some fish. It is fresh.
*day by day; as time goes by 逐日；一天一天地
Day by day she learnt more about her work.
*look forward to(doing) sth. 欣然期待（去做）谋事。
The little girl was looking forward to seeing her uncle from America.
*be suitable for; be right for a purpose适宜的；适当的；恰当的。
Do you think this present is suitable for a little boy?
*be in debt: owe a lot of money 欠债
The old man was in heavily debt in order to buy seeds.
*make sense: have an understandable meaning有意义；有道理；讲得通；
What you say makes no sense.
It doesn’t make sense to buy that expensive coat when these cheaper ones are just as good.
*earn one’s living: get money by working谋生； 挣钱生活
I start to earn my own living this very afternoon.
*for one thing: (used to introduce a reason for sth.用以引出谋事的理由 )一来
I’m afraid that I won’t be able to spend the weekend with you in Dalian. For one thing, I have no money and another I’m too busy.
连接主句与从句的连词有副词why, how, where, when, whether, if,它们在从句中充当状语成份，个有不同的词意，因此不能省略。代词who, whom, whose, what, which, 它们在从句中充当主语、定语、宾语，个有不同的词意，因此也不能省略。在联系中取舍哪一个词，本着缺什么成份，把它补齐，使句子在结构上与含意上完整就可以了。不同的连词，名子的意思也不同。例如：
Why/How/Where/When/Whether/Of what material the new house will be built hasn’t been decided yet.
Today’s newspaper reports(that) sales of beef in China will increase.（宾语从句）
That land ownership in some countries is unfair is obvious.（主语从句）
The reason is that is has been raining for five days.（表语从句）
The reason that it has been raining for five days is why the crops has been flooded.
Tom says that his sister is(was, will be) a doctor.
He thought the boy was honest.
I told him his brother was coming(would come).
We didn’t know whether they had finished their work.
The mother told her little daughter that the earth goes round the sum.
He told me that the train for Beijing leaves at 10:30.
Somebody told me that you are a teacher.
当主句的动词是think, believe, suppose, expect时，从句的否定要前移。
I don’t think she is right.
Many centuries ago, all people had gathered seeds and plants to eat. They did not know how to farm or raise animals for food. Because they used stone tools and weapons, we call them the Stone Age people. There are people who still live much like these Stone Age people lived. They live in places that are hard to reach. Because they have met few outsiders, they do not know about modern inventions. They have not traded ways of doing things with others. For 25,000 years, groups of people have lived alone in the middle of Australia. One of the groups is the Aruba tatribe. They do not know how to farm, nor do they raise animals. The Artuntas spend most of their time searching for food and water. The men hunt animals with stone---tipped spears. The women and children look for roots, seeds and nuts. Several Artunta families live together. They have no houses. At night, they sleep around fires.
WUHAN PLUMBING(水管) & HEATING
Plumbing and Heating Installation(安装)
LARGE OR SMALL
24 Hours 7 Days Service
261 Dong Fang Road
1.What is written above is _______.
A. a notice B. an address
C. an advertisement D. a poster
2.What service is offered free by Wuhan P.& H.?
A. Installation B. Quality of houses
C. Estimates of costs D. Large or small repairs
3.For which of the following problems would one call Wuhan P.& H.?
A. A leak(漏) in the roof.
B. Gas leak in the refrigerator.
C. Something wrong with wall plugs.
D. A broken bathroom pipe leaking water all over the floor.
4.The person who calls Wuhan P.& H. may discuss _____.
A. A duties B. experience C. cost D. salary
5.Wuhan is in _____ Province.
A. Hubei B. Hebei C. Hunan D. Henan
1.─I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.
─Is that _____ you had a few days off ?
A. why B. when C. what D. where (NMET99)
2.─It was _____ he said _____ disappointed me.
A. what; that B. that; that
C. what; what D. that; what (上海99)
句1：从题干和所给的4个选择中不难看出本题考查的是表语从句。“I drove to Zhuhai for the air show.”提出一个事实，而第二句表明“I”不在的原因。故答案为A.why。
句2：该句考查的是强调句和主语从句。该句强调的是句中的主语，而该句的主语又是一个从句。从这个结构中可以看出第二个空和“It was”构成强调句，故第二个空应该是that；第一个空和“he said”构成主语从句；在这个从句中“said”一词后缺少宾语，故答案为A.what;that。
1.A country is not likely to develop without industry and a____.
2.Zhou Enlai will always be remembered as a great p_____.
3.The dish is not salty. Do you mind pouring some s____ on it?
4.Greatly to my r_____ , I am unable to accept your kind invitation.
5.His death means a great l____ to science.
6.It is not _____(合适) to grow cash crops here.
7.We don’t care what _____(材料) they really want.
8.The problem was how they could ______(偿还) so much.
9.They had to _____(承认) what they had done was wrong.
10.Who has won the first place will not be _____(公布) until the game is over.
11.I can not help _____ of my childhood _____ I see the wound in my leg.
A. think, when B. thinking, whenever
C. to think, when D. thought, no matter when
12.At the party we _____ to some ice cream.
A. helped B. to help C. helping D. were helped
13.______ the orders or you will be punished.
A. Have B. Receive C. Obey D. Place
14.─Is this machine _____ order or _____ good order?
─It works very well
A. in; in B. out of; in
C. in; out of D. out of; out of
15.We are all looking _____ the day when our country will be highly developed.
A. at B. for C. up D. forward to
16.The city was almost destroyed completely by an earth quake many years ago.
A. damaged slightly B. torn C. ruined D. broken
17.The expedition _____ no loss of life and returned to their base on time.
A. made B. got C. gained D. suffered
18.If you want a plant to ____, you had better _____ it in the garden.
A. plant; plant B. grow; plant
C. plant; grow D. be grown; grow
19.Last year farmers could not have their wheat crops _____ because of the bad weather.
A. increasing B. decreased
C. increased D. decreasing
20.It didn’t take her long to work ____ that she would soon have no money left.
A. at B. on C. for D. out
21.It is _____ that the experiment should be made under low temperature.
A. said B. reported C. told D. suggested
22.______ man first made use of electricity is not exactly known.
A. When B. Whether C. That D. What
23.______ this material will be used in the product has not been decided yet.
A. If B. That C. What D. Whether
24.______ we are saying is more than ______ we will do.
A. That; that B. What; what
C. As; as D. Whatever; that
25.Our doubt is _____ he can do the experiment alone.
A. that B. if C. whether D.what
26.The reason ______ he didn’t come to our party was _____ he took a missing boy back home on his way here.
A. why; because B. why; that
C. that; why D. that; that
27.Do you have no idea ______?
A. how fast light travels B. how fast does light travel
C. how soon light travels D. how rapid light travels
28.Do you have no doubt _____ he will succeed in finding a new job?
A. if B. whether C. that D. whether or not
29.I kept looking at the man, wondering _______.
A. whether had I had seen him before
B. where I had seen him before
C. that I had seen him before
D. when I had seen before
30.The teacher told the children that man _____ any life on the moon.
A. didn’t find B. could not find
C. doesn’t find D. hasn’t been able to find
In the 17th century corn was grown a lot in Tibet and Sichuan. At that time the land along the Changjiang River was becoming very 31 ;there was not enough 32 for the population. Farmers had to move 33 the hills, but they 34 rice there. They needed plant which didn’t need 35 water as rice. 36 they were able to grow the new corn.
Today, corn is found all over the world. It is a very useful plant that can be 37 in many different ways. People in the West often boil in 38 over an open fire. In many parts of the world corn 39 powder. The powder is then 40 water and other things, and made inot different kinds of food.
D. a crowd
34.A. hadn’t grown
B. didn’t grow
C. can’t raise
D. couldn’t grow
35.A. as many
B. as much
C. as much as
D. much as
B. to cook
39.A. makes into
B. be made to
C. be made from
D. is made into
40.A. mixed with
B. mixed to
D. to mix
Plants are very important living thing. Life could not
go on when there were no plants. This is why plants can
make food with air and, water, or sunlight. Animals and men
can’t make food with air, water or sunlight. Animals can get
its food by eating plants and other animals. Man gets his food by eating plants and animals, either. Therefore, animals, and
man need plants in order to live. This is that we find we find
such many plants around us. If you look carefully at the plants around you, you’ll find that there are many types plants. Some
plants are big, while others are small. Most of plants are green.
1.─My daughter has passed the exam.
─Congratulations! She’s really intelligent.
A. No, no, she is intelligent.
B. Oh, thank you!
C. Sometimes she is intelligent.
D. You are right.
2.─You forgot to feed the cat again!
A. I can’t remember.
B. I don’t mind feeding her again.
C. I’ll do it now.
D. Yes, I did. What about you!
3.─Mum, I’ve cut my finger. It’s bleeding!
A. Let me see.
B. Don’t worry.
C. Be careful
D. Let me have a look
4.─What’s happened to my library book?
A. I’ve no idea.
B. You borrowed them from the library.
C. You bought them yesterday.
D. They’re about long life.
5.─Where is Tom this morning?
─He’s got a cold.
A. Just tell him to take it easy.
B. What’s the matter with him?
C. He’s absent.
D. What? Where is he?
1.agriculture; 2.politician; 3.sauce; 4.regret; 5.loss
6.suitable; 7.materials; 8.repay; 9.admit; 10.announced
11-15BDCBD 16-20CDCCD 21-25BADBC 26-30BACBD
Plants are very important living thing. Life could not
go on when there were no plants. This is why plants can
make food with
and, water, or sunlight. Animals and men
can’t make food with air, water or sunlight. Animals can get
its food by eating plants and other animals. Man gets his food by eating plants and animals, either. Therefore, animals, and
man need plants in order to live. This is that we find we find
such many plants around us. If you look carefully at the plants around you, you’ll find that there are many types plants. Some
plants are big, when others are small. Most of plants are green.
1.B; 2.C; 3.D; 4.A; 5.A
文件 high3 unit17.doc
标题 My teacher（我的老师）
simple-minded , patience , laughter , burst into laughter , look back upon , wisdom , human being , priceless , gifted , throat
Asking for permission and responses (征求许可与应答)
1. May / Can / Could I do … ?
2. I wonder if I could do … ?
3. Would / Do you mind if I … ?
4. Do you think I could do … ?
5. I was wondering if I could
6. Will you allow me to do … ?
7. Do you have any objection ?
8. I should like to do …
9. With your permission , I should like to …
10. I hope you don’t mind , but wouldn’t it be possible for me to do …… ?
11. As you wish . / If you like .
12. I don’t mind , just as you like . / I don’t mind your doing … .
13. Not at all , please . .
14. You are welcome to use …
15. Of course . / Yes . / Sure . / Certainly .
16. Go ahead . That’s OK . / That’s all right .
17. I’m sorry , you can’t . / I’m sorry , but … .
18. You’d better not do… .
19. Out of question , I’m afraid .
20. I’m afraid it’s not possible for you to do … .
可以说系动词也是考试的热点，它用来表示状态；它跟形容词、名词、介词短语、动词-ing形式、过去分词等合用构成系表结构。常见的系动词有：become , look , sound , smell , taste , seem , appear , prove , turn , go , remain , stay , fall等。
at birth , at a birth , by birth , from birth , of…birth 与 give birth to
birth 是中学英语教材中的一常用词，也常见于 birthday ( 生日 ) 、birthplace ( 出生地 ) 、birthrate ( 出生率 ) 和 birth control ( 计划生育 ) 等一些复合名词或短语之中。从字面看，这些复合词和短语意义容易理解，但下面一些含 birth 的介词短语和动词短语对于中学生来说就不那么容易理解了。现将 at birth , at a birth , by birth , from birth , of…birth 与 give birth to 的用法作一总结，供同学们参考。
1 . at birth 意为 “ 出生时 ” ，相当于 when one was born 。例如：
She weighed 8 pounds at birth . 她出生时重 8 磅。
2 . at a birth 表示 “ 一胎生育…… ” 。例如：
Cats sometimes have four or five young at a birth . 猫有时一胎产四、五只幼仔。
3 . by birth 意为 “ 按血统，论出身 ” 。例如：
He was a Swede by birth , a German by education . 他具有瑞典血统，受的是德国的教育。
4 . from birth 意为 “ 一生下来就，从一出生下来 ” 。例如：
She has been blind from ( her ) birth . 她从一生下来就双目失明。
5 . of…birth 意为 “ 出身于……之家 ” 。例如：
He was a man of noble birth . 他出身名门望放。
6 . give birth to 意为 “ 生出，生产 ” 。例如：
She gave birth to a second chile in January . 元月她又生了一个孩子。
The Chinese nation has given birth to many national heroes and revolutionary leaders . 中华民族孕育出了许多民族英雄和革命领袖。
This kind of work requires much patience .
She had no patience with her nosy neighbours .她不能容忍爱管闲事的邻居们。
〖点拨〗with patience = patiently耐心地。be out of patience with对……不能忍受。
另外，注意：be patient with sb对某人耐心。be patient of sth对某事耐心。
You should be more patient with these patients . 你应该对这些病人再耐心些。
I heard a roar of laughter from the next room . 我听到从隔壁房间传来哄笑声。
〖点拨〗burst into laughter = break out into laughter = burst out laughing 放声大笑。
注意由laugh构成的词组有：laugh a good / hearty laugh开心地笑。laugh a bitter laughter苦笑。have a good laugh over对……捧腹大笑。laugh at嘲笑。
He laughs longest who laughs last . = He who laughs last laughs longest . (谚语) 笑到最后的笑的最好。（别高兴的太早了。）
The priceless collection of paintings is of great importance .
〖点拨〗valuable , invaluable , priceless , valueless 和 worthless
从形式上看，invaluable , priceless , valueless 和 worthless 这四个形容词均带有否定意义的前缀 in- 或者后缀 -less ，因此，很容易认为它们都含否定意思，其实它们的含义有天壤 之别。现介绍如下：
1) invaluable ：该词中的前缀 -in 加重 valuable 的含义，所以 invaluable 的准确意思为“价值大得无法衡量的”“非常贵的”。如：
His advice has been invaluable to the success of the project . 他的意见对于项目取得成功起到了非常积极的作用。
2) priceless ：该词中的后缀 -less 有抬高价码的意思，所以该词译作“价值高得难以确定的”“非常值钱的”“无价的”。如：
Only the rich can afford to buy these priceless paintings . 只有富人们才能买得起这些价值千金的绘画作品。
Works of art , historic monuments and priceless historical records were ruthlessly destroyed . 艺术作品、历史遗址以及无法估价的史料均遭到残酷的破坏。
3) valueless ：此处的 -less 是一个含否定意义的后缀，故该词译作“不值钱的”“毫无价值的”。如：
These paintings have been ruined and are now valueless . 这些油画都已毁坏，所以现在就无价值了。
4) worthless ：此词与 valueless 同义，但还有“不足取的”“丝毫没用的”之意，这时不能与 valueless 换用。如：
The jewels he sold us turned out to be completely worthless . 他卖给我们的珠宝原来毫无价值。
It was a worthless action .那次行动得不偿失。
1. mean nothing to me对我来说毫无意义
2. reach my understanding终于使我弄明白了
3. reach out to把手伸向
4. reach out for伸手去那拿
5. take sb by the hand挽着某人的胳膊
6. bring sb into touch with使某人接触到
7. look back upon / over被……所感动
8. be patient with sb对某人耐心
9. demanding job费事的工作
10. owe thanks to sb for为……而感谢某人
11. start all over again重新开始
12. do an exam考试
13. be away on holiday外出度假
14. sound exciting听起来扣人心弦
15. burst into tears = burst out crying突然哭起来
16. vote for sb投票选某人
17. fall silent突然沉默下来
18. study away from home在离家很远的地方就读
1 . …one or two people had told my mother that I was simple-minded . 有一两个人曾对我母亲说过我头脑简单。
〖明晰〗(1)one or two…后的动词用复数，one or two还可作主语。但a/an…or two可当作集合名词看待，而动词取单复数都可，由讲话者或作者主观上而定。如：
There are one or two things that must be remembered . 有几件事必须记住。
Only one or two have been questioned about the case . 有关该案只有一两个人受到审问。
Only a word or two is/are needed here . 这儿只需几句话就行了。
(2)simple-minded 头脑简单的。minded作为形容词常构成复合词，含“有……头脑 的（思想的，观念的，意识强的）”。如：
small-minded气量小的，absent-minded心不在焉的，noble-minded思想高尚的,independent-minded有独立见解的,like-minded观点相同的,tradition － minded有传统观念的，lazy-minded 思想懒惰，sports-minded醉心体育运动的，safety-minded安全意识强的。
2 . A born teacher, she thought she would turn a deaf- blind person into a useful human being . 她是一位天生的教师， 她认为她能把一个又聋又瞎的人变成为一个有用的人。
〖明晰〗(1)a born teacher在本句作非限制性同位语，通常，非限制性同位语放在与它同位的那个词后面，并用逗号隔开。但是有时非限制性同位语可以提到句子前面，放在主语前面，这样做是为了给这个同位语以突出的位置，但更多的是因为主语是人称代词（人称代词太短），如果将较长的同位语放在后面会影响句子的平衡。又如：
An excellent speaker, he is never at a loss for words . 他是一位出色的演说家，从来不会想不出说什么好。
a born fool 天生的傻子/a born musician 天生的音乐家/a recently born idea 新近产生的想法/He is born rich . 他生来有钱。
3 . I reached out to Annie's hand . 我把手伸向安妮的手。
〖明晰〗reach out 伸出手（臂），可作不及物动词，也可作及物动词。如：
She reached out and took down a dictionary from the top shelf . 她伸手从最高一格书架上取下一本词典。
She reached out her hand and offered to shake his . 她伸了手去，想和他握手。
4 . She also brought me into touch with everything that could be felt ━━ soil, wood, silk . 她还使我接触到所有能感觉到的东西 ━━ 泥土、木板、丝绸。
〖明晰〗bring into 使进入某种状态。bring sb into touch ( contact, association) with…使接触到。如：
This brought us into touch with a wide circle of people . 这使我们有机会广泛接触各式各样的人。
5 . As I look back upon those years, I am struck by Annie's wisdom . 当我回顾那些岁月时，安妮的智慧使我惊叹不已。
〖明晰〗(1)look back“回顾，回忆”（＝think about the past, recall the past）, 后接on, upon, to, over介词短语。如：
Looking back upon our achievements, we are firmly convinced that we shall be able to achieve even greater victories . 回顾我们所取得的成就，我们坚信将能取得更大的胜利。
(2)be struck by 被……所打动，被……所迷住。
6 . It took great imagination as well as patience for Annie to teach me to speak . 安妮以极大的耐心和想象力教我说话。
〖明晰〗as well as 在此处是连词“和，又，也，除……外还”。 在表示“不但……而 且……”时则侧重强调前者，谓语与前者一致。而“not only…but also …”则侧 重于后者，谓语与后者一致。如：
He can speak French as well as English . 他不但会讲英语，而且还会讲法语。
She is not only hardworking but also clever . 她不但用功，而且聪明。
(He as well as we is(=Not only we but also he is ) eager to know the results . 不仅我们，而且他也急于想知道结果。
7 . To Annie I one thanks for this priceless gift of speech . 我得感谢安妮给了我说话能力这个无价之宝。(=Annie taught me to able to speak . This I consider to be the most valuable gift she gave me . For this I express my gratitude to her . )
〖明晰〗(1)owe thanks to sb for为……而感谢某人。to sb可提至句首以示强调。如：
I owe many thanks to Mr Wang for his help . 对王先生的帮助，我非常感谢。
She owes her success to hard work . 她把成功归因于辛勤工作。
8. laugh, laughter, laughing, laughable, smile
〖明晰〗(1)laugh v . n . 笑；发笑；笑声。常作动词指由于高兴、快乐或看到某个有趣的景象而出声的笑，有时也表示嘲笑。如：
laugh at 因……而出声的笑；嘲笑/laugh in sb's face 当面嘲笑某人/laugh one's head off放声大笑/burst into a laugh 突然笑起来/laugh a hearty laugh放声大笑/have a good laugh over 对……捧腹大笑/He laughs best who laughs last . 谁笑在最后，谁笑得最好。
(2)laughter 笑；笑声。 其常见搭配有：burst into laughter 突然哈哈大笑 /with laughter or with tears不知是哭还是笑/I heard sounds of laughter in the next room . 我听到隔壁屋里的笑声。
(3)laughing 带笑的；可笑的；一笑置之（指主语所表现出的外部特征）。 laughable. 有趣的；荒唐可笑的（指主语的所作所为令人可笑）。如：
a laughing girl一个笑容满面的姑娘/make laughable mistakes 把一个令人可笑的错误/It's no laughing matter . 这可不是开玩笑的。/He considered our offer of $ 10000 for the painting laughable . 他认为我们对这幅画出价10万美金简直可笑。
She smiled her thanks . 她以微笑表示感谢。
She smiled a forced smile . 她强作笑颜。
9. priceless, price, priced, value, invaluable, valueless, precious, worthless
〖明晰〗(1)price n . 价格，价钱；代价。priced有定价的。priceless（无比较级和最高级）无价的，贵重的（＝invaluable）。如：
Up goes the price of the vinegar!醋价又上涨了。/the priced steel有定价的钢材/make a priceless contribution to human beings 为人类作出宝贵的贡献。/Good health is priceless . 健康是无价之宝。
(2)value价，价值。估价，评价；珍重。valuable adj . 有价值的，贵重的。 invaluable无价的(指无法衡量的高价值，相当于priceless)。如：
This book is of more value than that one . 这本书比那本书价钱贵。 /You don't know the value of health . 你不知道健康的重要性。 /Our Party highly values the wisdom of the masses . 我党高度重视群众的智慧。
a worthless, broken tool 没有用的工具。
10 . health, healthy, healthful
〖明晰〗 (1)health “健康；卫生”，常用于be in good/poor health 身体很（不）健康。 healthy “健康的，健壮的”(having health)，当healthy 引伸为“有益于健康”的时候可与healthful换用。healthful “有益于健康的”( giving health)。如：
Fresh air and exercise are good for the health . 新鲜空气和运动有益于健康。
Swimming is a healthful exercise . 游泳是一项有益于健康的运动。
(SEFC B1 L58)Every person needs water and a diet of healthy/healthful food . 人人需要饮水和食用有益于健康的食品。
11 . human, human being, human race, mankind, man, person, people, soul,creature
〖明晰〗(1)human adj . 人的，有关人的；人类的；有人性的。该词还可作名词表“人”，常用该词构成a human being一个人, human beings人们, human race 人类，在将人与动物、
Are robots as clever as humans?机器人跟人一样聪明吗?
(3)person 可以指man, woman或child,其复数形式常是people,用persons 则强调数 量的概念。“一个人”是a person, 不能说 a people, “两个人”可说two persons/people。
Man's knowledge of things constantly develops . 人类的认识总是不断发展的。
(5)people 泛诣“人们”，the people 人民，人们，a people, peoples民族。如：
The Chinese are a hardworking people . 中华民族是勤劳的民族。
serve the people为人民服务，many people at the meeting . 出席会议的人很多。the English-speaking peoples 使用英语的各民族。
(6)soul, creature 在书面语中常表“人”，常与数词连用并带感情色彩。soul还表“首脑，核心人物”如；
Won't someone help that poor pretty creature?难道没人帮助那可怜但美丽的人吗?
The ship was lost off the coast with all souls . 这条船在沿海失事，船上的人全部遇难。
an important soul in the strike 罢工中的核心人物。
一位澳大利亚姑娘和一个美国小伙结婚后，在美国度蜜月。有一天新郎新娘去赴宴，新郎觉得没有合适的服装可穿，恰巧前不久新娘在他的生日前送了他一套服装，新娘于是不假思索地说：" Why not wear your birthday suit ? " 不料这句话却使新郎全家大惊失色，面面相觑。
原来，这位来自澳大利亚的、生来就讲英语的新娘不知道 birthday suit在美国英语中不当" 生日服装 " 讲，而是" 赤身露体 " 的婉语，所以闹出了笑话。如：
The little boys were swimming in their birthday suit . ( 那些男孩子正光着身子在游泳。)
1. absent-minded心不在焉 2 . run across sb .偶然遇见某人 3 . go ahead 随便 ( 用 ) 吧，开始吧 4 . on the air 在广播 5 . let alone 更不用说 6 . as well 也，一起 7 . as ( so ) long as只要 8 . so far 到目前为止 9 . be sound asleep睡得很熟 10 . pass away 去世 11 . go to bed上床睡觉 12 . not a little不止一点 13 . break down ( 机器 ) 出故障 14 . bring up把某人养大15 . bring about引起，造成 16 . build up增强 ( 体质 ) 发展 ( 事业 ) 17 . but for 要不是 18 . call up sb .给某人打电话 19 . carry out执行，开展 20 . come true ( 梦想 ) 成真，实现 21 . in common 共同地 22 . the other day过去某一天 23 . keep a diary 写日记 24 . drop in顺便拜访 ( 某人或某地 ) 25 . at ease 26 . enjoy oneself过得快乐 27 . for good永远28 . far from毫不，远远不是 29 . feel like doing sth . 想要做某事 30 . by force通过武力
常见的“变成”类系动词有 become , get , come , go , grow , fall , turn , run 等，都表示从一种状态到另一种状态。尽管意思差不多，但搭配有差别，若不注意，运用时会出错。我们要注意以下几个方面。
1 . 形容词作表语。
go 和 come 是一对相反的词。“go + adj . ”表示令人不快的事情，而“come + adj . ”则表示好的事情。例如：
In hot weather , meat goes bad .
Things will come right in the end .
go 与 come 前面的主语一般是物。例如：
(误)She goes famous .
(正)She becomes(gets)famous .
表语为mad , crazy(古怪的)，blind , lame 或表示颜色的词，go 前面的主语可以是人。例如：
He went mad .
Hearing this , she went red .
run 后面接 short , dry , low , deep 等词，主语多为能流动，能消耗掉的东西。例如：
Their money was running short .
Still waters run deep .
但 wild 作表语，主语可以是人。例如：
Don't let the children run wild . 不要让孩子们毫无约束(变野了)。
grow 与 run 相对，接表示人或物特征的静态形容词，也接表示天气的形容词，侧重于“逐渐变成”。例如：
The girl grew thinner and thinner .
Soon the sky grew light .
The man turned blue with fear . 因害怕，这个人变得忧郁起来。
The weather suddenly turned much colder .
fall 接 asleep , silent 等静态形容词和表示疾病的形容词，但不能接形容词比较级。例如：
She fell ill from cold .
(误)She fell worse .
(正)She got worse .
fall short(没中)，fall apart(散开)，fall flat(没效果)，可作成语记住。
“get + adj . ”是口语，用得广泛，get能替代become , become 较正式，get 与 become 前面的主语既可以是人又可以是物。例如：
He became(got)angry .
His coat has become(got)badly torn .
The days are getting longer and longer .
(误)I hope you will become well .
(正)I hope you will get well .
2 . become , turn , get , go , fall 能用名词作表语，其它的则不能。例如：
His dream has become(got)a reality .
He has turned scientist .
He has gone socialist .
He fell(a)victim to cancer . (他患了癌症。)
注意：go , turn 后面的名词通常不带冠词。
3 . become , get , grow 能接过去分词，并且 come 和 go 多接有否定前缀的过去分词。
“get + 过去分词”表示一次行为；“become + 过去分词”表示事情发生的最后结果。
The string comes untied .
His report went unnoticed .
The fence gets white――washed every year .
She became engaged as a typist .
4 . get , go , come 能接现在分词，不过它们已失去“成为”的意思。例如：
They went in and got chatting together . (开始)
We often go swimming . (去)
He came running in . (来)
5 . come , grow , get 能接不定式，这种结构表示变化过程，come 表示“最终变得”，get 表示“由不……变得”，grow 表示“渐渐变得”。例如：
I've really come to love this place .
Mary's growing to be more and more like her mother .
You'll soon get to like it .
(误)They have got to know each other for years .
(正)They have known each other for years .
6 . 它们都可以接介词短语，固定搭配需要一个一个地记。例如：
They went(grow)out of fashion . (它们变得不时髦了。)
They ran out of money .
The problem will come under discussion .
They fell behind the others .
What has become of the girl .
It's getting near tea-time .
声 音 的 特 性